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The possible effect of shaker harvest on root damage of 10-year-old cherry trees was studied on a simple tree structure model. The model was composed of elastic trunk and rigid main roots, the ends of which were connected to the surrounding soil via springs and dumping elements. Equations were set up to be able to calculate the relation between shaking height on the trunk and strain in the roots. To get the data for root break and their elongation at different shaking heights on the trunk, laboratory and field experiments were carried out on cherry trees and on their roots. Having evaluated the measured and calculated data it could be concluded that root damage is to be expected even at 3.6% strain and the risk of it increases with increased trunk amplitudes, i.e.

  1. with the decrease of shaking height
  2. at smaller stem diameters (i.e. in younger plantation), and
  3. if the unbalanced mass of the shaker machine is too large for the given tree size.

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Central leader and vase form tree models were built using Finite Element Modelling (FEM). Their main characteristics were chosen to be the same. To get comparable results to real values, acceleration versus time curves of the two types of real trees were processed using FFT method to determine their natural frequencies. The natural frequencies measured on real trees and calculated for the models have shown good similarity. The models were virtually exposed to the effect of horizontal forced vibration in the frequency range of 0–20 Hz. Acceleration-frequency curves were calculated and drawn to find the best frequency values for the highest accelerations and also to see their differences in the limb. For the same purpose, the direction of shaking was also changed. It was found that for the central leader limb shape multidirectional shaking would bring uniform detachment, while for the vase form trees, even the unidirectional shakers are appropriate. Real trees were also shaken and their acceleration-frequency curves were compared with the values of the FEMs. The resultant good similarity proves the ability of the models. The acceleration values achieved in the vase form models were much higher than for the central leader type. The acceleration-frequency curve of the shaker unit can be used to find the best frequency for shaking.

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The widespread use of digitally-controlled measuring and analytical devices and electronic data collectors, all equipped with microprocessors and linked to computers, has made it possible for on-line data collection to become a routine process. A rational combination of two up-to-date techniques, barcodes and digital balance terminals, linked to an average computer background (Kuti et al., 2003), has proved in practice to satisfy the criteria raised for the up-to-date processing of breeding data at low cost. This system is an example of how it is possible to reduce costs while processing data more rapidly and reliably and allowing human resources to be utilised more flexibly and efficiently. The modules (MvLabel, MvSticker, MvWeighing)of the program package developed in Martonvásár for the handling and analysis of the data from plant breeding and crop production experiments can also be used independently for the identification of experimental field units (spikes, rows, plots) and for the online handling of weight measurements and analytical data. They provide a simple solution for the design and printing of labels (self-adhesive or plastic) containing barcodes. They make it easier to retrieve the data recorded by digital balance terminals and store them on hard discs, while also helping to unify and synchronise the various parts of the system using barcode readers to identify the measurement data.

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The storage of wheat data in computers began in the mid-eighties in Martonvásár, and was accompanied by the development of the first simple programs to assist the data management of routine breeding tasks. The great expansion of breeding materials and the demand for new applications have led to an enormous increase in the number of data and have made data processing increasingly more complicated. Data storage facilities and computer programs reflecting an outdated technological level were unable to keep pace with developments. Data storage and applications had to be redesigned on new lines to create a completely new information system amalgamating know-how from breeding and informatics.The paper introduces an extremely important part of this system: pedigree records, which contain the designations of all the genotypes included in traditional field breeding programmes and in the gene bank, together with crossing data, phenotypes and genomic data.An up-to-date, consistent pedigree register is one of the key components in the breeding information system, without which the maintenance and alteration of the names of plant species (wheat, barley, oats, etc.) and linking them to experiments and experimental quality data would be an extremely complex, time-consuming task. It would be even more difficult to keep track of all the genotypes and the increasingly large numbers of related lines from year to year.In addition to describing the rationale behind the system, details will be given on the tools and conditions required for the establishment of the pedigree records, and the internal and external sources available. Finally, some practical examples will be given of how the Martonvásár wheat breeding information system has been applied.

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Both resistance genes Lr19 and Lr24 originate from Agropyron elongatum . The gene Lr24 is derived from two different translocations: 1BS/3Ag (‘Amigo’) or 3DS/3Ag (‘Agent’). The use of molecular markers makes selection easier during the breeding process as well as in the selection of the parents. In this study, two markers were used to identify the gene Lr19 (GbF/R 130 , SCS265 512 ) and four different markers (J9/1-2 310 , SC-H5 700 , SCS1302 613 and SCS1326 607 ) were available to search for the gene Lr24 . The GbF/ R130 marker for gene Lr19 worked well, but the SCAR marker SCS265 512 proved to be easier to use in MAS. SCAR markers SCS1302 613 and SCS1326 607 proved to be highly reliable and effective for gene Lr24 not only in Agent-derived sources but also in ‘Amigo’ derivatives. The STS marker J9/1-2 310 and the SCAR marker SC-H5 700 required several modifications and were effective only in ‘Agent’ offsprings.

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The genetic diversity of cultivated spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) presently is narrow. Evaluation of germplasm collections of spelt on quality level supplemented with DNA analysis is, therefore, of great importance. This study was designed to help the evaluation process for the selection of new spelt varieties with a support of molecular characterization. A total of 30 genotypes, including two common wheat varieties, were included in the evaluation of genetic diversity on quality and DNA levels. According to the quality attributes, spelt flours exhibited medium rheological parameters and many of them had average gluten quality. AFLP analysis was conducted to evaluate phylogenetic relationships and the genetic diversity present in the accessions. A high level of genetic diversity was revealed by the very high PIC values. Two main clusters could be separated on the dendrogram: a cluster with genotypes that have common wheat in their pedigree and another cluster consisting of pure spelt accessions. The extent of genetic diversity in the spelt germplasm collections was confirmed not only by molecular markers but on the basis of quality assessment.

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A total of 266 Martonvásár (Mv) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions, including varieties and advanced lines, were examined using the “Perfect” molecular markers to detect the Rht-B1b (formerly Rht1) and Rht-D1b (formerly Rht2) semi-dwarfing genes. The gene Rht-B1b was detected in a total of 221 (83.5%) accessions. The Rht-D1b allele was found in fewer accessions. Overall 24 genotypes (9%) contained this allele. The analysis of the development date of the genotypes revealed that the introduction of the dwarfing genes into Martonvásár breeding programmes started in the early 1970s, and they were widely utilized from the 1980s. The Rht-B1b allele was the main source for reducing plant height, while the Rht-D1b allele played only a minor role in the Martonvásár breeding programme.Characterizing accessions using various molecular markers allows us to create a database offering relevant marker information about genotypes. Such a database could be very helpful for selection, allowing breeders to include varieties giving positive results in specific breeding programmes.

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The effect of irrigation water on the yield and on individual yield components was examined for 19 durum wheat varieties by continually recording weather data and carrying out measurements on the moisture content, temperature, electrical conductivity and tension of the soil. Dry (rain-fed) and irrigated treatments were included in the experiment, which was carried out in the framework of the EU FP7-244374 DROPS project.During the rainless spring of 2011 the soil moisture content of the non-irrigated area dropped to 21–22 vol% and the effect of drought stress was still felt at harvest. The quantity of irrigation water applied during the growing season ensured normal conditions for generative development and a significant difference could be detected between the yield components in the two treatments. The thousand-kernel weight of the varieties was identical in the dry and irrigated plots, but in response to irrigation there was an increase in the number of grains per ear and the grain weight, and an improvement in fertilisation, resulting in higher yields.

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The effect of vernalization response and photoperiod sensitivity on reproductive fitness and agronomic traits was examined in a group of 16 H. spontaneum accessions and 8 H. vulgare cultivars in controlled environments. The whole range of plant developmental and agronomic traits was determined by vernalization. The reproductive fitness was severely impaired when the vernalization requirements of the plants were not saturated. Variation in the magnitude of vernalization response significantly correlated with several traits. A larger decrease in reproductive tiller number, average seed number and consequently final grain yield was more characteristic of accessions with a greater vernalization response. When the vernalization requirement was met, long photoperiod enhanced the fitness of the plants and resulted in larger yield and yield components, irrespective of the genotype, while short photoperiod acted as a limiting factor for all these traits. There was, however, a difference in the reaction type of wild and cultivated genotypes due to their different plant strategies.

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