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Cytomixis has been described in many plant species, but not in Thinopyrum . The present study reports spontaneous cytomixis during microsporogenesis in Thinopyrum intermedium (2n = 42), Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 70), and their F 1 hybrids with wheat. Cytomixis frequently occurred in early prophase I but very rarely in meiosis II. The type of cytomixis that occurred most often was where chromatins migrate from one nucleus into an adjacent cel1. Migration from one nucleus into two or more cells or from two or more nuclei into one cel1 was also observed. After a donor cell transferred chromatin to a recipient cell, the recipient cell would sometimes pass the chromatin on to another cell. Migration did not necessarily occur between cells in the same stage. Cytomixis in Th. ponticum and its hybrids with wheat was more complex than that in Th. intermedium . The possible causes, cytological consequences and genetic significance of cytomixis are discussed.

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Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was one of the most disaster foliar diseases for wheat-growing areas of the world. Thinopyrum intermedium has provided novel resistance genes to multi-fungal disease, and new wheat-Th. intermedium derivatives for stripe rust resistance still need to develop for wheat breeding. Wheat line X484-3 was selected from a cross between wheat line MY11 and wheat-Th. intermedium ssp. trichophorum partial amphiploid TE-1508, and was characterized by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and functional molecular markers. Chromosome counting revealed that the X484-3 was 2n = 44 and GISH analysis using Pseudoroegneria spicata genomic DNAas a probe demonstrated that X484-3 contained a pair of St-chromosomes from Th. intermedium donor parents. The functional molecular markers confirmed that introduced St-chromosomes belonging to linkage group 7, indicating that line X484-3 was a 7St addition line. The resistance observation displayed that the introduced Th. intermedium ssp. trichophorum derived chromosomes 7St were responsible for the stripe rust resistances at adult plant. The identified wheat-Th. intermedium chromosome 7St addition line X484-3 can be used as a donor in wheat breeding for stripe rust resistance.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S.F. Dai, D.Y. Xu, Z.J. Wen, Z.P. Song, H.X. Chen, H.Y Li, J.R. Li, L.Z. Kang, and Z.H. Yan

A novel 4.0-kb Fy was sequenced and bacterially expressed. This gene, the largest y-type HMW-GS currently reported, is 4,032-bp long and encodes a mature protein with 1,321 amino acid (AA) residues. The 4.0-kb Fy shows novel modifications in all domains. In the N-terminal, it contains only 67 AA residues, as three short peptides are absent. In the repetitive domain, the undecapeptide RYYPSVTSPQQ is completely lost and the dodecapeptide GSYYPGQTSPQQ is partially absent. A novel motif unit, PGQQ, is present in addition to the two standard motif units PGQGQQ and GYYPTSPQQ. Besides, an extra cysteine residue also occurs in the middle of this domain. The large molecular mass of the 4.0-kb Fy is mainly due to the presence of an extra-long repetitive domain with 1,279 AA residues. The novel 4.0-kb Fy gene is of interest in HMW-GS gene evolution as well as to wheat quality improvement with regard to its longest repetitive domain length and extra cysteines residues.

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New high-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW glutenin) sequences isolated from six Psathyrostachys juncea accessions by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR differ from previous sequences from this species. They showed novel modifications in all of the structural domains, with unique C-terminal residues, and their N-terminal lengths were the longest among the HMW glutenins reported to date. In their repetitive domains, there were three repeatable motif units: 13-residue [GYWH(/I/Y)YT(/Q)S(/T)VTSPQQ], hexapeptide (PGQGQQ), and tetrapeptide (ITVS). The 13-residue repeats were restricted to the current sequences, while the tetrapeptides were only shared by D-hordein and the current sequences. However, these sequences were not expressed as normal HMW glutenin proteins because an in-frame stop codon located in the C-termini interrupted the intact open reading frames. A phylogenetic analysis supported different origins of the P. juncea HMW glutenin sequences than that revealed by a previous study. The current sequences showed a close relationship with D-hordein but appeared to be more primitive.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: W.F. Song, Z.Y. Ren, Y.B. Zhang, H.B. Zhao, X.B. Lv, J.L. Li, C.H. Guo, Q.J. Song, C.L. Zhang, W.L. Xin, and Z.M. Xiao

Two lines, L-19-613 and L-19-626, were produced from the common wheat cultivar Longmai 19 (L-19) by six consecutive backcrosses using biochemical marker-assisted selection. L-19 (Glu-D1a, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?; Gli-A1? is a gene coding for unnamed gliadin) and L-19-613 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?) formed a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for HMW-GS, while L-19-613 and L-19-626 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m) constituted another set of NILs for the LMW-GS/gliadins. The three L-19 NILs were grown in the wheat breeding nursery in 2007 and 2008. The field experiments were designed using the three-column contrast arrangement method with four replicates. The three lines were ranked as follows for measurements of gluten strength, which was determined by the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, the stability and breakdown time of the farinogram, the maximum resistance and area of the extensogram, and the P andWvalues of the alveogram: L-19-613 > L-19-626 > L-19. The parameters listed above were significantly different between lines at the 0.05 or 0.01 level. The Glu-D1 and Glu-A3/Gli-A1 loci had additive effects on the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, stability, breakdown time, maximum resistance, area, P and W values. Although genetic variation at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus had a great influence on wheat quality, the genetic difference between Glu-D1d and Glu-D1a at the Glu-D1 locus was much larger than that of Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? and Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus. Glu-D1d had negative effects on the extensibility and the L value compared with Glu-D1a. In contrast, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? had a positive effect on these traits compared with Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m.

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Abstract

In this paper, we studied the inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on non-enzymatic glycosylation and the improvement of glycometabolism in insulin resistant (IR) human liver tumour (HepG2) cells. The anti-glycosylation activity of OA was determined by bovine serum albumin (BSA) fructose model. The results showed that OA moderately inhibited the formation of the intermediates of non-enzymatic glycosylation, fructosamine and α-dicarbonyl compounds, and strongly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In addition, we analysed the effect of OA on glycometabolism induced by palmitic acid (PA) in HepG2 cells. The results showed that OA had almost no impact on HepG2 cell viability at concentrations lower than 30 µM. With the increase of OA concentration, glucose production in IR HepG2 cells decreased, while glycogen content increased. Meanwhile, OA has a significant inhibitory effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in IR-HepG2 cells. Those results suggested that OA could be a promising natural blood glucose decreasing substance in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

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