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The effects of nitrogen (N) applications on Hungarian, French and Serbian winter wheat cultivars were studied in field trials conducted from 1996 to 2003 in a central Hungarian region, Hatvan-Nagygombos. Fertilizer rates of 0, 40, 80, 120, 40+40 and 80+40 kg ha-1 active ingredient were applied at tillering and after anthesis (Feekes 3 and Feekes 10.5). The N-fertilizer applied was ammonium-nitrate in 34% cc. Split-split plot design with four replications was used. In the experiment the changes of quantity and baking quality of the yield were analysed. Differences in rainfall during the vegetation period - especially in April and May - had a strong effect on wheat yield. In drought periods N top-dressing had a great importance. In the dry 2001-2003 years, the 80 and 120 kg ha-1 fertilizer doses were the most effective. The increasing dose of N top-dressing and its division resulted in this trial in an outstanding quality improvement in spite of the unfavourable ecological circumstances. Especially, great improvement was seen in case of foreign varieties that were of lower quality compared to the Hungarian ones. The top-dressing stabilized the falling number values in the 250-350 top range.

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Acta Alimentaria
Zs. Szentpétery
Cs. Kleinheincz
A. Tarnawa
, and
M. Jolánkai

Since the change of the Hungarian agriculture the increased weed infection causes great losses in wheat. It is necessary to apply herbicides on the weedy field as harvest approaches to make the harvest easier and avoid losses. In our small plot trials at Nagygombos, between 1996 and 2002 the applicability of fluroxypyr, bromoxynil, dicamba, tribenuron-methyl and MCPA in late weed control was examined in four wheat varieties. We found that the late application against weeds did not have a total eliminating effect, however reduced the number of weeds, restricted their development and the reproductive organs below and above ground dried. Weed seed infection was slowed down and the dried stems made harvesting easier. In the last three years, we found that fluroxypyr (Starane) and tribenuron-methyl (Granstar) impeded a little the maturing and water extraction in the milk maturation stage of wheat, but this difference was not seen in full maturation. Examinations showed that after late weed control, all of above-mentioned chemicals except bromoxynil (Pardner) was discharged at the time of the harvest and were under the maximum residue tolerance limit. So the experimentally involved herbicides can be used for late weed control - in accordance with international experiences.

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