Authors:F. L. Macedo, R. A. Candeia, L. L. M. Sales, M. B. Dantas, A. G. Souza, and M. M. Conceição
Searching for other alternative sources, which are not part of the food chain, and which are able to supply the biofuel market is a promising option. In this context, it has been searched to investigate the oiticica oil, approaching its availability to the biodiesel synthesis, as well as its thermal stability. Few works retreat parameters such as: the optimization of the biodiesel synthesis, its physical–chemical properties, and thermal parameters etc. The characterization results revealed that the oil showed very high kinematic viscosity, and acidity value around 13 mg KOH/g, requiring a pre-treatment. To reduce the acid in the oil, it has been done the esterification of oil, which was studied in different molar ratios oiticica oil/ethanol (1:9) and 2.0% catalyst, in order to get the best reduction the index of acidity. The lowest level of acidity of the oil obtained after the esterification was 4.4 mg KOH/g. The reaction rate for the synthesis of biodiesel, compared to the initial mass of oiticica oil ester was 85%. This income can be overcome by pursuing an even smaller reduction of acid value of biodiesel oiticica. The acid value of biodiesel was 1.8 mg KOH/g. The results have revealed that the oiticica oil and biodiesel are stable at 224 and 179 °C, respectively.
Authors:L. Julião, A. Azeredo, M. Santos, D. Melo, B. Dantas, and J. Lipsztein
This study is a comparison between bioassay data of thorium-exposed workers from two different facilities. The first of these facilities is a monazite sand extraction plant. Isotopic equilibrium between232Th and228Th was not observed in excreta samples of these workers. The second facility is a gas mantle factory. An isotopic equilibrium between232Th and228Th was observed in excreta samples. Whole body counter measurements have indicated a very low intake of thorium through inhalation. As the concentration of thorium in feces was very high we concluded that the main pathway of entrance of the nuclide was ingestion, mainly via contamination through dirty hands.The comparison between the bioassay results of workers from the two facilities shows that the lack of Th isotopic equilibrium observed in the excretion from the workers at the monazite sand plant possibly occurred due to an additional Th intake by ingestion of contaminated fresh food. This is presumably because228Ra is more efficiently taken up from the soil by plants, in comparison to228Th or232Th, and subsequently,228Th grows in from its immediate parent,228Ra.
Authors:A. Souza, H. Danta, M. Silva, I. Santos, V. Fernandes, F. Sinfrônio, L. Teixeira, and Cs. Novák
The biodiesel obtained by transesterification by reaction between ester and an alcohol in the presence of catalyst. The purpose
of this work is to evaluate the thermal and kinetic behavior of the methanol biodiesel derived from cotton oil. The quality
analysis was done by gas chromatography and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H NMR) in order to examine if the product meets with the requirements of the European Standard EN 1403. The thermogravimetric
profile of the cotton biodiesel indicated that the decomposition steps are associated to the volatilization and/or decomposition
of the methyl esters. Kinetic data was also obtained by thermal analysis.
Authors:M. Dantas, A. Almeida, Marta Conceição, V. Fernandes Jr, Iêda Santos, F. Silva, L. Soledade, and A. Souza
This work presents the characterization and the kinetic compensation
effect of corn biodiesel obtained by the methanol and ethanol routes. The
biodiesel was characterized by physico-chemical analyses, gas chromatography,
nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal analysis. The physico-chemical properties
indicated that the biodiesel samples meet the specifications of the Brazilian
National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP) standards. The
analyses by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated
the ester formation. Gas chromatography indicated that biodiesel was obtained
with an ester content above 97%. The kinetic parameters were determined with
three different heating rates, and it was observed that both the methanol
and ethanol biodiesel obeyed the kinetic compensation effect.
Authors:H. Dantas, R. Mendes, R. Pinho, L. Soledade, C. Paskocimas, B. Lira, M. Schwartz, A. Souza, and Iêda Santos
Gypsum is a dihydrated calcium sulfate, with
the composition of CaSO4⋅2H2O,
with large application interest in ceramic industry, odontology, sulfuric
acid production, cement, paints, etc. During calcination, a phase transformation
is observed associated to the loss of water, leading to the formation of gypsum
or anhydrite, which may present different phases. The identification of the
phases is not so easy since their infrared spectra and their X-ray diffraction
patterns are quite similar. Thus, in this work, temperature modulated differential
scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) was used to identify the different gypsum phases,
which can be recognized by their different profiles.
Authors:M. B. Dantas, A. R. Albuquerque, L. E. B. Soledade, N. Queiroz, A. S. Maia, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, E. H. S. Cavalcanti, A. K. Barro, and A. G. Souza
Even not being described in the EN 14112 standard, PDSC has been used for the determination of the biodiesel oxidative stability, by OIT and OT measurements. In this study, biodiesel blends were obtained by mixing soybean (BES) and castor (BEM) ethyl esters and its induction periods were measured by Rancimat and PDSC. The blends (BSMX) showed intermediate values of OSI, OT, and OIT, compared with BES and BEM. Although, the molar fraction of the components varied linearly in BSMX, OSI, OT, and OIT values increased exponentially in relation to the castor biodiesel amount in the blends. Introduction of castor oil biodiesel increased the blend stability, so the BSM30 blend reached the OSI limit of 6 h. OSI, OIT, and OT showed a high-linear correlation, pointing out that PDSC can be used in the analysis of this kind of biodiesel, with a smaller sample and analysis time, as compared to Rancimat. The use of biodiesel blends was a good alternative in the correction of the oxidative stability of the final product without the need of antioxidant addition.