Increasingly, collaboration between firms as well as science-industry interactions are being considered as important for technology
development. Yet, few attempts have been made to analyze the contribution of collaboration, taking into account different
stages of the technology life cycle. Our analysis, based on a panel of 197 regions in the EU-15 and Switzerland (time period
1978–2001), provides evidence that, in the field of biotechnology, science-industry collaboration contributes to better technological
performance of regions both during the emerging phases (1978–1990) and the growth stages (1991–1999) of the life cycle. Collaboration
between industrial partners also contributes to the technological performance of regions during the first phase but is less
pronounced during later phases of the technology life cycle. Moreover, the analysis reveals that, as technologies develop
over time, the impact of local collaboration is mitigated in favor of collaboration that has an international dimension. This
holds true for both science-industry interactions and for collaboration between firms. In consequence, our findings underscore
the relevance of incorporating life cycle dynamics (of technologies) when studying the nature and impact of collaboration
on the technological performance of regions.
Authors:Julie Callaert, Joris Grouwels, and Bart Van Looy
Indicators based on non-patent references (NPRs) are increasingly being used for measuring and assessing science–technology interactions. But NPRs in patent documents contain noise, as not all of them can be considered ‘scientific’. In this article, we introduce the results of a machine-learning algorithm that allows identifying scientific references in an automated manner. Using the obtained results, we analyze indicators based on NPRs, with a focus on the difference between NPR- and scientific non-patent references-based indicators. Differences between both indicators are significant and dependent on the considered patent system, the applicant country and the technological domain. These results signal the relevancy of delineating scientific references when using NPRs to assess the occurrence and impact of science–technology interactions.
Authors:Tom Magerman, Bart Van Looy, and Xiaoyan Song
In this study, we examine and validate the use of existing text mining techniques (based on the vector space model and latent
semantic indexing) to detect similarities between patent documents and scientific publications. Clearly, experts involved
in domain studies would benefit from techniques that allow similarity to be detected—and hence facilitate mapping, categorization
and classification efforts. In addition, given current debates on the relevance and appropriateness of academic patenting,
the ability to assess content-relatedness between sets of documents—in this case, patents and publications—might become relevant
and useful. We list several options available to arrive at content based similarity measures. Different options of a vector
space model and latent semantic indexing approach have been selected and applied to the publications and patents of a sample
of academic inventors (n = 6). We also validated the outcomes by using independently obtained validation scores of human raters. While we conclude
that text mining techniques can be valuable for detecting similarities between patents and publications, our findings also
indicate that the various options available to arrive at similarity measures vary considerably in terms of accuracy: some
generally accepted text mining options, like dimensionality reduction and LSA, do not yield the best results when working
with smaller document sets. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.
Authors:Bruno Cassiman, Patrick Glenisson, and Bart Van Looy
In this pilot study we examine the performance of text-based profiling in recovering a set of validated inventor-author links.
In a first step we match patents and publications solely based on their similarity in content. Next, we compare inventor and
author names on the highest ranked matches for the occurrence of name matches. Finally, we compare these candidate matches
with the names listed in a validated set of inventor-author names. Our text-based profile methodology performs significantly
better than a random matching of patents and publications, suggesting that text-based profiling is a valuable complementary
tool to the name searches used in previous studies.
Authors:Bart Van Looy, Tom Magerman, and Koenraad Debackere
In this paper we investigate — at a country level — the relationship between the science intensity of patents and technological
productivity, taking into account differences in terms of scientific productivity. The number of non patent references in
patents is considered as an approximation of the science intensity of technology whereas a country’s technological and scientific
performance is measured in terms of productivity (i.e., number of patents and publications per capita). We use USPTO patent-data
pertaining to biotechnology for 20 countries covering the time period 1992–1999. Our findings reveal mutual positive relationships
between scientific and technological productivity for the respective countries involved. At the same time technological productivity
is associated positively with the science intensity of patients. These results are confirmed when introducing time effects.
These observations corroborate the construct validity of science intensity as a distinctive indicator and suggest its usefulness
for assessing science and technology dynamics.
Authors:Julie Callaert, Bart Van Looy, Arnold Verbeek, Koenraad Debackere, and Bart Thijs
The recent developments towards more systemic conceptualizations of innovation dynamics
and related policies highlight the need for indicators that mirror the dynamics involved. In this
contribution, we assess the role that 'non-patent references', found in patent documents, can play
in this respect. After examining the occurrence of these references in the USPTO and EPO patent
systems, their precise nature is delineated by means of a content analysis of two samples of nonpatent
references (n=10,000). Our findings reveal that citations in patents allow developing nontrivial
and robust indicators. The majority of all non-patent references are journal references,
which provide ample possibilities for large-scale analyses focusing on the extent to which
technological developments are situated within the vicinity of scientific knowledge. Application
areas, limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Authors:Bart Van Looy, Koenraad Debackere, Julie Callaert, Robert Tijssen, and Thed van Leeuwen
Today's theories and models on innovation stress the importance of scientific capabilities and science-technology proximity,
especially in new emerging fields of economic activity. Inthis contribution we examine the relationship between national scientific
capabilities, the science intensity of technology and technological performance within six emergent industrial fields. Our
findings reveal that national technological performance is positively associated with scientific capabilities. Countries performing
better on a technological level are characterized both by larger numbers of publications and by numbers of involved institutions
that exceed average expected values. The latter observation holds for both companies and knowledge generating institutes actively
involved in scientific activities. As such, our findings seem to suggest beneficial effects of scientific capabilities shouldered
by a multitude of organizations. In addition, higher numbers of patent activity coincide with higher levels of science intensity
pointing out the relevance of science 'proximity' when developing technology in newer, emerging fields. Limitations and directions
for further research are discussed.