Radiochemical separation methods have been applied for the neutron activation analysis of impurities in four high-purity refractory metals, Ta, Nb, W and Mo. Impurities in the metals of Ta, Nb and W can be separated into groups using anion exchange resin with HF and/or a mixture of HF acid and HCl, but those in Mo is done using both anion and cation exchange resins. The coprecipitation of U with Th in HF media is also investigated.
In this work, an easy, fast and reliable measurement technique for the quantitative determination of retained fission gases
in an irradiated oxide fuel was developed. Many experiments were conducted to determine the optimum conditions for fusion
of an oxide fuel, for the quantitative collection and measurements of the released gases. Ion implantation technology was
applied to make a krypton or xenon references in a solid matrix. A fragment of oxide fuel, about 0.1 g of an unirradiated
SIMFUEL, was completely fused with excess metallic fluxes, 1.0 g of nickel and 1.0 g of tin, in a graphite crucible of a helium
atmosphere for 120 s at 850 A as a mixture of metals and alloys. About 96 ± 3 to 98 ± 4% of the krypton and xenon that were
injected into the instrument using a standard gas mixture was reproducibly recovered by collecting the releasing gas through
the instrument for 120 s. Using the same fusion and collection conditions, it was possible to recover about 97 ± 3% of the
injected krypton and xenon by fusing a fragment of SIMFUEL which was wrapped with krypton or xenon implanted aluminum foils.
The recovery test results of krypton and xenon using ion planted aluminum foils gave encouraging results suggesting their
potential use as a reference specimen. It was confirmed that a fragment of irradiated oxide fuel, 0.051 g, with a code burn-up
of 56.9 MWd/MtU, was completely fused as the mixture of metals and alloys through the fusion conditions and more than 99%
of the retained fission gases were recovered during the first fusion. Since no cryogenic trap was needed, the collected gas
could be measured directly and thus the analysis time could be further reduced. Approximately 7 min was sufficient to finish
the measurement of retained fission gases in the irradiated oxide fuel using the developed procedure.
The determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in industrial concentrates such as lead foam and raw lead by neutron
activation analysis is described. The noble elements are separated from the matrix by spontaneous deposition on amalgamated
copper powder prior to activation. After the determination of palladium and platinum, rhodium is coprecipitated on iron hydroxide,
and the precipitate irradiated for the determination of rhodium. The results are compared with those obtained by fire assay.
A systematic study has been made on the reducing power of amalgamated copper powder in hydrochloric acid solution for palladium,
platinum, rhodium, iridium, gold and silver. In order to apply this method to the activation analysis of palladium, platinum
and rhodium in industrial concentrates which contain a large amount of ‘base elements’, the behaviour of palladium, platinum
and rhodium in the presence of the ‘base elements’ has also to be considered.
New165Dy and166Ho macroaggregates(165Dy-MA,166Ho-MA) were prepared by reacting the aqueous solution of165Dy(NO3)3 and166Ho(NO3)3, respectively, with sodium borohydride solution in 0.2N NaOH.165Dy-MA and166Ho-MA are sterile suspension of macroaggregates consisted of Dy/Ho (50–56 wt.%) and boron (5–7%) in saline with mean particle size of 2.6 m (1–8 m range). Both MA could be prepared from the pre-made164Dy-MA and165Ho-MA followed by neutron irradiation. Even though the165Dy-MA and166Ho-MA suspension in saline were stored at 37°C for 24 hrs (Dy-MA), 10 days (Ho-MA) or autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes, there was no significant change in particle size and no leakage problem indicating the prepared165Dy-MA and166Ho-MA are sufficiently stable. The results of in-vivo retention studies using rabbits showed high retention (>99.5%) in knee joint even at 24 hrs (165Dy-MA) or at 10 days (166Ho-MA) after administration. Rabbits treated with intra-articular injections of164Dy-MA or165Ho-MA equivalent to 20–30 times the typical clinical dose showed no signs of any toxic effects at 1 month after administration. The ease with which the165Dy-MA and166Ho-MA can be made in the narrow size range and their high in-vitro and in-vivo stability make them attractive agents for radiation synovectomy.
The complete genome of Hosta Virus X (HVX), which is thought to be a distinct species of Potexvirus, was sequenced. Nucleotide sequences of HVX were compared with those of other members of the genus Potexvirus and phylogenetic tree was constructed. The range of identities of viral replicase open reading frame 1 (ORF1) between HVX and other potexviruses were 43.1%–55.1% and 35.9%–46.6% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis was performed according to the amino acid sequence of the replicase to determine the position of HVX in the genus Potexvirus. Results from the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that HVX was in the same group as Cassava common mosaic virus (CsCMV), Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), Tulip virus X (TVX), and Hydrangea ring spot virus (HdRSV). In particular, coat protein (CP) sequences among viruses from different Hosta cultivars were revealed to be less variable than those from different isolates of Potato virus X (PVX), a Potexvirus type species. In the present study, HVX was transmissible by seeds of the Hosta “Blue Cadet” cultivar. Moreover, HVX was detected in the embryo but not in the seed coat or endosperm of the seed.
The relative ans single comparator methods have been applied to determine 7 rare-earth elements and U, Th in Korean Monazites by 14.5 MeV neutron activation analysis. The (n, 2n) nuclear reactions are used for all elements except La, for which (n, p) reaction is used. Al is used as a flux monitor for the relative method and as a singlle comparator for the single comparator method. The analytical results obtained by the two methods agree well within 3% deviation except for Sm and Gd. These results are also compared with the result obtained by a single comparator method using reactor neutron.
The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) completed the High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO) in 1995 and the radioisotope production facilities(RIPF) in 1997. Many devices and handling tools were developed and applied for the production of radioisotopes. Emphasis on RI production plan was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, the development of new radiation sources for industrial use and the steady production of selected radioisotopes. The selected items are 166Ho-based pharmaceuticals, fission 99Mo/99mTc generators, and products of 131I and 192Ir and 60Co sources for industrial use. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (131I, 99mTc, 166Ho, 192Ir, 60Co etc.) and labeled compounds including 99mTc cold kits. Newly developed therapeutic agents are a 166Ho-chitosan complex for liver cancer treatment, a 166Ho patch for skin cancer treatment and devices such as the stent and balloon for the prevention against restenosis of the coronary artery. Feasibility studies on the installation of a 99mTc generator loading facility and on 60Co production for food irradiation were finished. The 192Ir sealed source assembly for NDT has been supplied to domestic users since May 2001. The fission moly process, separation process of non-sealed sources (125I, 33P, 89Sr, 153Sm, 188Re) and fabrication process of sealed sources (169Yb, 75Se) are also under development. For the quality assurance of our final products, we obtained ISO certification in 2000. We are carrying out a feasibility study on a new research reactor for the stable supply of radioisotopes in Korea.
The calorimetric glass transition and dielectric dynamics of -relaxation in propylene glycol (PG) and its five oligomers (polypropylene glycol, PPG) have been investigated by the modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and the broadband dielectric spectroscopy. From the temperature dependence of heat capacity of PPGs, it is clarified that the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the glass transition region are affected by the heating rate. The kinetic changes of PG and PPGs near Tg strongly depend on the underlying heating rate. With increasing the molecular mass of PPGs, the fragility derived from the relaxation time against temperature also increases. The PG monomer is stronger than its oligomers, PPGs, because of the larger number density of the —OH end group which tends to construct the intermolecular network structure. Adam-Gibbs (AG) theory could still hold for MDSC results due to the fact that the dielectric relaxation time can be related to the configurational entropy.