The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of temperature and rainfall on selected quality traits and parameters of the yield structure in the period from kernel filling to maturity. The research material comprised 30 strains and variations of winter wheat collected by the staff of the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute. The following traits were marked: resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, falling number and sedimentation value, protein content, 1000-kernel weight, the number and weight of kernels in an ear as well as the number of days from heading to full maturity.The least stable trait over the annual periods proved to be the resistance to pre-harvest sprouting and the falling number. It was observed that dry and hot summers tended to shorten the period between kernel filling and maturity and also to increase falling number and sedimentation value. Also, a very high correlation was observed between the number of days without rain and resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. In the years with a high level of rain and a balanced distribution of rainfall, there were significant negative correlations between the number of kernels per ear, on the one hand, and protein content and sedimentation value on the other, and also between the sedimentation value and the kernel weight per ear. In the years with the least number of rainfalls, such correlations were not observed.
Due to developments in the food and baking industry, grain quality determines prices and market options to a large extent. The introduction of high quality wheat varieties into cultivation requires not only favourable technological parameters, but also good adaptation to unfavourable environmental conditions. The level of rainfall in Poland during the spring and summer differs greatly from one years to the other, so the varieties introduced into cultivation must be capable of giving high values of quality parameters with both an excess and deficit of rainfall. the aim of the present work was thus to study whether the quantity of rainfall affected the technological traits determining the industrial usefulness of the crop, and if so, in what way. interactions were observed between the evaluated genotypes and the environmental conditions (particular years and locations), which greatly influenced the average level of the technological traits. This was most strongly observed for traits related to gluten quantity and quality. the rainfall level over the whole vegetation period was not correlated with the technological traits examined, while the rainfall measured in May significantly influenced the sedimentation value and water absorption (r= -0.68** and r= -0.54*), which are the traits most strongly related to the gluten quality and rheological qualities of the dough.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of atmospheric precipitation on the yield of spring malting barley. The plant height and heading of the studied forms were observed as additional indicators of their reaction to variable water conditions. The plant material for this study consisted of spring barley breeding lines in generations F6-F7 evaluated at 7 locations in 1996-2001. The highest yield was observed with precipitation within the range 258-321 or 356-382 mm per growing season in years with colder or warm weather, respectively. These results were obtained using abundant plant material highly differentiated genetically, so it may be inferred that the above values are the rainfall levels optimal for spring barley cultivation under Polish climatic conditions. The experimental locations could be divided into four classes according to observations on mean yields and on total rainfall before heading and between heading and full maturity. the optimal class included locations where the highest yield was observed; in the second there was a high precipitation level but a lower yield was obtained; in the third class there was a shortage of rainfall before heading, and in the fourth class there was a shortage of rainfall between heading and maturity. The observation of yields lower than those obtained in optimal locations led to the assumption that stress factors at these locations did not allow the yield potential of the studied genotypes to be fully expressed. The studied genotypes showed good adaptation to the variable conditions of the Polish climate, which is characterized by periods with a shortage or excess of rainfall.