Porcine circovirus type 2- (PCV2-) associated reproductive disorders and enteritis have commonly been observed on PCV2-contaminated pig farms in recent years. In order to investigate disorders of intestinal immunity in piglets infected by PCV2 during the fetal period, 9 PCV2b-infected piglets and 6 non-infected piglets at one day of age were selected and euthanised prior to suckling. Samples of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and duodena were collected to investigate factors related to intestinal immunity and to detect lymphocytic apoptosis. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in the levels of IL-2, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the PCV2b-infected piglets but IFN-γ levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) and IL-4 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in infected piglets than in the controls. Furthermore, lymphocytic apoptosis increased in PCV2b-infected piglets and CD4+ to CD8+ ratios were lower in these piglets than in the controls. These findings suggest vertical transmission of PCV2b to fetuses, leading to an imbalance of intestinal immune function in piglets.
To understand the genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in South China, we collected 231 clinical samples from pigs with suspected PRRSV infection in Guangdong between 2007 and 2009. We found that 74 of 231 samples were positive by RT-PCR. The PCR products of the ORF5 gene of 35 isolates from different farms were sequenced and their DNA sequences were compared to 23 other PRRSV isolates in the GenBank. We found that the nucleotide similarity among all South China isolates ranged from 87.6% to 100%, and all belonged to the North American genotype. Most of them were classified into subgenotype I, but the rest mapped to subgenotypes III, V or VI. Those in subgenotypes I and III were found to be highly variable in the primary neutralising epitope (PNE) with a specific amino acid mutation (F39/L39→I39), and a few isolates in subgenotypes I and III isolates also had a mutation at L41 (L41→S41). PRRSV isolates in subgenotypes III, V and VI had less potential glycosylation sites than those in subgenotype I. Our data contribute to the understanding of molecular variation of PRRSV in South China.
This study evaluated the consistency between the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD-11) for gaming disorder (ICD-11-GD) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for internet gaming disorder (DSM-5-IGD). Moreover, the functional impairment of participants and their insight of their GD were evaluated.
We recruited 60 participants with GD, 45 participants who engaged in hazardous gaming (HG), and 120 controls based on a diagnostic interview. Their operationalization of functional impairment and stage of change were evaluated by interviews and questionnaires, including the Brief Gaming Negative Consequence Scale (BGNCS).
We observed satisfactory consistency (kappa value = 0.80) with a diagnostic accuracy of 91.5% between the ICD-11-GD and DSM-5-IGD criteria. Furthermore, 16 participants with IGD in DSM-5 were determined to have HG based on the ICD-11 criteria. Participants of GD group experienced impaired functioning in their health (96.7%), career (73.3%), social life (61.6%), academic performance (36.7%), and job performance (35%). Moreover, a proportion of them were in the pre-contemplation (25.0%), contemplation (61.7%), preparation (10%), and action stages (3.3%).
There is a good consistency between ICD-11-GD and DSM-5-IGD criteria. The ICD-11 criteria have a high threshold for diagnosing GD. HG criteria could compensate for this high threshold and identify individuals with a gaming-related functional impairment who require help. Most of the participants with GD were in the early stage of change. Interventions to promote their insight are essential. The BGNCS can be used to examine the negative consequences of gaming and aid mental health professionals in assessing functional impairment.