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Abstract  

A new co-crystal of theophylline and phthalic acid with 1:1 molar ratio has been prepared. It crystallises in the monoclinic crystal system, space group P21/c, a=11.5258(9), b=10.1405(6), c=13.9066(12) Å, β=106.827(4)°. The structure of the co-crystal has been revealed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. An infinite helical polymeric chain is formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonds of the two neutral constituents. The hydroxyl group and carbonyl oxygen atom in one of the carboxyl groups of phthalic acid form hydrogen bonds to O6 and to N(7)H atoms of theophylline, respectively, while the other carboxyl OH group of phthalic acid is in hydrogen bond to N9 atom of theophylline by very strong intermolecular interactions proven by 1883 cm−1 centred peak in FTIR spectrum. Thermal degradation of this new supramolecular compound is a two-step process in air. At first phthalic acid (47.4%) released up to 230°C, meanwhile it loses water and transforms into phthalic anhydride. In EGA-MS spectra, the characteristic fragments of water (m/z=17, 18) appear from about 180°C, while absorption bands of phthalic anhydride are shown in EGA-FTIR spectrum at about 210°C. In the second step theophylline begins to sublime, melts at 276°C, and then evaporates up to 315°C with minute residues.

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-controlled simultaneous TG, DTG, DTA, TD and EGA apparatus. Part I. - Journal of Thermal Analysis, 32, pp. 301--310. Derivatograph-C. A microcomputer-controlled simultaneous TG, DTG, DTA, TD and EGA apparatus. Part I

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Abstract  

The author gives a detailed survey on thermogravimetric investigations under quasi-isothermal — quasi-isobaric conditions (Q-TG). According to the principle of the technique the heating of the sample is governed by the transformation itself according to the feed-back principle in a way that the transformations should take place at a strictly constant rate, slower by orders of magnitude than in the case of the conventional techniques. Due to this, the transformations take place under ideal conditions, near to physico-chemical requirements.Based on the obtained advantageous results further methods were elaborated, like thermo-dilatometry (Q-TD), evolved gas analysis (Q-EGA) and microdistillation under quasi-isothermal conditions.The second part of the present review deals with DTA and DSC techniques under quasi-isothermal conditions elaborated recently

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Abstract  

The dynamics of SO2 emission during thermooxidation of Estonian oil shale, its semicoke, different samples of coal and their mixtures, as well as the influence of Estonian oil shale ash addition (for modelling the CFBC process) on the dynamics were studied. The experiments were carried out with thermogravimetric equipment under dynamic heating conditions (5 K min-1) in the atmosphere of dried air, with simultaneous gastitrimetric EGA. It was established that SO2 emission from the fuels started at 200-320C. Depending on the form of sulphur (organic, pyritic, sulphate), the emission took place in two or three steps, and continued up to 580-650C, during which 35-75% of the total sulphur was emitted into the gaseous phase. Regulating the mole ratio of free CaO/S in the mixtures of fuels with oil shale ash addition the emission of SO2 ceased abruptly at 460-540C and it was limited to the level of 7-30%.

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Summary An odorless woodceramics (CH800), which was prepared by carbonizing chicken wastes with phenolic resin, was characterized by XRD and thermal analysis. CH800 was found to consist mainly of amorphous carbon (non-graphitizing carbon) as studied by XRD. Differing from carbonized chicken waste, CH800 was completely free of unfavorable smell. The source of strong smell of carbonized chicken waste was studied by using TG-DTA combined with EGA technique using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (TG-DTA/GC-MS). As a result, it was found that CH800 was completely free of compounds having strong smell, i.e., ethanol, acetonitrile, pyridine, styrene, benzonitrile and benzofuran, whereas carbonized chicken waste contained all of these compounds.

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Abstract  

A free-base tetraphenyl porphyrin (TPP) and its corresponding metalloporphyrins (MTPP) where M = Co, Fe and Sn were synthesized and characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR and 1Hnmr spectroscopy. Thermal studies of these porphyrins were carried out in synthetic air from room temperature to 800 °C using thermal analyser. The residues of MTPP after thermal treatment were qualitatively analysed, which showed the presence of corresponding metal oxides. Further, the above MTPP were subjected to thermogravimetry–evolved gas and mass spectrometry (TG–EGA–MS) analysis for the detailed information about evolved gases at their corresponding decomposition temperatures. This information may be used to predict the probable mechanism for ring opening of the macromolecular porphyrins.

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Abstract  

The thermal behaviour of kaolinites intercalated with formamide, dimethyl sulphoxide and hydrazine has been studied by simultaneous TG-DTG-DTA-EGA and TG-MS techniques. The complexes can be decomposed completely without dehydroxylating the mineral. It was found that the amount of intercalated guest molecules per inner surface OH-group is close to unity for the formamide and dimethyl sulphoxide intercalates. For the intercalation of hydrazine it was found that hydrazine is locked in the expanded mineral as hydrazine hydrate and its amount is somewhat higher than that obtained for the other two reagents. The thermal evolution patterns of the guest molecules revealed that all the three reagents are bonded at least in two different ways in the interlayer space.

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Abstract  

Complexes represented by the general formula [MCl2L2] (M(II)=Zn, Mn, Co) and complexes of [Cu3Cl6L4] and CuSO4L24H2O, CoSO4L23H2O, [ZnSO4L3] where L stands for 3-amino-5-methylpyrazole were prepared. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal (TG, DTG, DSC and EGA) methods and molar conductivity measurements. Except for the Zn-complexes, the magnetic susceptibilities were also determined. Thermal decomposition of the sulphato complexes of copper(II) and cobalt(II) and the chloro complexes of cobalt(II) and manganese(II) resulted in well-defined intermediates. On the basis of the IR spectra and elemental analysis data of the intermediates a decomposition scheme is proposed.

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Abstract

Novel double complex salts [M(NH3)5Br][AuBr4]2·nH2O, M = Rh, Ir, have been synthesized and examined. The processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds in inert and reductive atmospheres have been studied and intermediate products identified. Simultaneous thermal analysis with parallel mass-spectrometric analysis of evolved gases (STA-EGA) has been employed for identification of main gaseous products of thermolysis in inert atmosphere. It has been revealed that the final products of decomposition in inert or reductive atmospheres are fine powders of gold and the corresponding platinum metal with sizes of crystallites 4–40 nm. The possibility of preparation of the metastable solid solution Au0.05Ir0.95 on thermolysis of [Ir(NH3)5Br][AuBr4]2·H2O in inert atmosphere has been demonstrated.

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Abstract  

The characteristics of bioaragonite of shells of recent T. decussatus during heating were studied by the means of TG-DTA-EGA (FTIR), XRD, XRF and FTIR. The mass loss recorded up to 2.5% appeared with the higher rates at 110–150, 200–250, 295–300, and 390–415°C at heating of 10°C min−1 up to 500°C. IR analysis of the evolved gases revealed the emission of water and CO2. The lattice constants tend to change with anisotropy character (parameters a and c diminish whilst b tends to grows) and with an overall contraction of cell volume (from 227.36 to 226.84 Å3) during heating was established. The peculiarity of bioaragonite was explained by substitution of H2O and sulphate ion into the lattice. In spite of those substitutions, bioaragonite reveals an orthorhombic structure, which is preserved during the changes up to calcite formation above 380°C.

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