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Relationships between Fauna and People and the Role of Ethnozoology in Animal Conservation . Ethnobiology and Conservation 1 : 1 – 69 . Alves , Rȏmulo Romeu da Nóbrega – Filho , Gentil Alves Pereira 2007 Commercialization and Use of Snakes in North

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We investigated the spatial dependence of the sensitivity of nitrogen measurement with a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for small animals and developed an analysis procedure that permits the reduction of systematic errors due to that dependence. The analysis procedure is based on neutron and photon transport calculations performed using the MCNP code in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the PGNAA facility. The system can be calibrated experimentally using a small number of phantoms of known size and composition. The calculation approach can then be used to predict responses for animal body sizes and shapes relatively to those experimentally determined and to include the effect of tissue inhomogeneities. Our calculations were verified by experimental measurements performed for a set of cylindrical inhomogeneous phantoms. The calculated to experimental ratios observed were within 6%.

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Levels of some of the most essential minerals in liver tissue of wild animals living in game reserves in South Africa were studied by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis and a Ge(Li) detector. In addition, some of the most important trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The distribution of the content of the various elements was followed for about two years and attempts have been made to explain the influence of seasonal fluctuations of the micronutrients determined.

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In adult rats administered simultaneously with potassium 82Br-bromide and 24Na-sodium chloride, we demonstrated the parallel course of the excretion rates of bromide and sodium ions with the aid of in vivo whole-body counting of the animals by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The rats were exposed to various intakes of sodium ions accompanied by five different anions: Br, Cl, HCO3 , ClO4 , and SCN. Regardless of the anion accompanying the sodium ion, the excretion rates of 82Br and 24Na+ ions were directly proportional to the magnitude of sodium intake in the rats.

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Analyses for value assignment in the renewal Standard Reference Materials® SRM 1598a Animal Serum and SRM 1577c Bovine Liver included extensive characterization by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Conventional instrumental NAA procedures were complemented by pre-irradiation chemical separations for the determination of Al, V, Mn, and Cu, radiochemical separations for the determination of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Sb, and Se, and the use of (anti-) coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry systems for the instrumental determination of Ag, Cr, and Hg. The previous materials, SRMs 1598, 1577, and 1577b, were analyzed together with the new materials for quality control.

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Low β-counting was compared to combustion and liquid scintillation counting for detection of low levels of14C activity in animal tissues. In two separate experiments tissues from sheep and from pigs were analyzed. The first experiment utilized tissues from sheep into which a known amount of14C radioactivity was added. Combustion analysis gave somewhat higher recovery than low β-analysis, 92.8% compared to 85.7%. Statistical analysis indicated that the greatest source of random variation was in sampling. In the second experiment tissues from pigs given a14C labeled drug were analyzed. Sampling was again the greatest source of random error, however, it was greatly reduced over that in the first experiment. This was attributed to higher levels of radioactivity or to more homogeneous incorporation of radioactivity into tissues. The analytical performance of the two methods was essentially the same and a decision as to the best method for tissue residue studies is dependent on other considerations.

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By making use of the 19F(p,αγ)16O reaction the F-concentrations of different varieties of tea leaves, of some international geochemical reference materials, and of the bones and teeth of some experimental animals have been determined. The tea leaves from Ceylon (ordinary), Orange Pekoe (special Ceylon), China (ordinary black), Lapsang Souchong (special smoked Chinese) and Darjeeling (India) were found to contain 170 ppm, 170 ppm, 120 ppm, 160 ppm and 100 ppm of fluorine, respectively, The F-concentrations of established geochemical reference materials, NIM-D, NIM-N, NIM-P and NIM-S, from the National Institute of Metallurgy, South Africa were determined to be 60 ppm, 120 ppm, 130 ppm and 190 ppm, respectively. The bones of rabbits, who were given fluoridated water, were found to contain much higher amount of fluorine than the bones of the control rabbit. Furthermore, the rabbits who were kept on fluoridated water for 45 days, had almost double the amount of F in their bones than the rabbits who were given fluoridated water for only 15 days. Similarly, the teeth of grown-up monkeys who were given fluoridated water since birth had double the amount of fluorine than those of the control monkey.

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We have studied the uptake of237Np in marine plants and animals belonging to several phyla, and collected samples from the end of January 1986 to March 1986, in a sampling station situated near the outlet of the irradiated fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague.We determined the237Np by neutron activation analysis. This method is very sensitive, with a limit of detection of 5×10–10 mg, 1.3×10–2 mBq. The method consists of the following steps:Reduction of the neptunium to the tetravalent state by treatment with a mixture of hydrazine sulfate and ferrous iron-chromatographic separations on Dowex 1×10 resin in a nitric medium, then in a hydrochloric medium-neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor-purification of the neptunium by chromatography on Dowex 1×10 resin in a nitric then hydrochloric medium-measurement of the isotope238Np by gamma ray spectrometry using a Ge(Li) detector. The species were collected at Goury, at the northwest extremity of the Cotentin Peninsula, 5 km from the outlet of the reprocessing plant at La Hague. The levels of237Np were as follows: red algaeCorallina officinalis 64 mBq kg–1 wet weight; andChondrus crispus 18 mBq kg–1 wet weight; the spongeHalichondria panicea 14 mBq kg–1 wet weight; the ascidianDendrodoa grossularia 12 mBq kg–1 wet weight. The bivaive molluscsPatella vulgata andGibbula umbilicalis (the flesh ofP. vulgata andG. umbilicalis: 4 and 7 mBq kg–1 wet weight respectively) also prove to be interesting biological indicatorsThe transfer modes of237Np to the various species as a function of their trophic levels are discussed as well as the distribution among the organs in the species consumed and the radiological impact of human consumption.

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In the investigation of the prehistory of the Yakut language only few and not very reliable sources are at our disposal. Although these sources are very important, some are not available for the researchers, or not prepared to meet modern linguistic/philological requirements. The main aim of this paper is to present the Yakut material of Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica , a famous work of P. S. Pallas published in 1811, for further research. In addition, etymological notes and remarks on the naming conventions of Yakuts are also included. In the appendix all the Yakut materials of the Zoographia , 135 different items altogether, are presented in a systematic way, with the comparison of data from the corresponding works of D. G. Messerschmidt and J. G. Gmelin.

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