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Abstract  

Solvent extraction of U(VI) with di-isodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA)/dodecane from nitric acid medium has been investigated for a wide range of experimental conditions. Effect of various parameters including nitric acid concentration, DIDPA concentration, temperature, stripping agents, and other impurities like rear earths, transition metal ion, boron, aluminum ion on U(VI) extraction has been studied. The species extracted in the organic phase is found to be UO2(NO3)(HA2)·H2A2 at lower acidity (<3.0 M HNO3). Increase in temperature lead to the decrease in extraction with the enthalpy change by ∆H = −16.27 kJ/mol. Enhancement in extraction of U(VI) from nitric acid medium was observed with the mixture of DIDPA and tri butyl phosphate (TBP). The stripping of U(VI) from organic phase (DIDPA–U(VI)/dodecane) with various reagents followed the order: 4 M H2SO4 > 5% (NH4)2CO3 > 8 M HCl > 8 M HNO3 > Water. High separation factors between U(VI) and impurities suggested that the use of DIDPA for purification of uranium from multi elements bearing solution.

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Synergism with amides

I. Synergistic extraction of uranyl ion with thenoyltrifluoroacetone and some aliphatic amides

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: R. Veeraraghavan, S. Pai, and M. Subramanian

Abstract  

Synergistic extraction of uranyl ion with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and aliphatic amides with varying basicities, viz. dibutyl hexanamide (DBHA), dibutyloctanamide (DBOA) or dibutyldecanamide (DBDA) has been studied at various fixed temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and 50±0.1°C. Results indicate that the equilibrium constants of the organic phase addition reaction (Ks) with these amides follow their order of basicity (Kh) viz. DBHA (0.09)<0.10) H DBOA (0.13) with log Ks values of 4.91, 4.99 and 5.02, respectively. These values are much higher than those with TBP (3.8) or sulfoxides (4) as donors. This may be attributed to the existence of a resonance form of the amide, which has higher electron density on the carbonyl oxygen. The thermodynamic parameters associated with these systems evaluated by the temperature coefficient method indicate that the organic phase addition reaction with all the three amides is stabilized by both enthalpy and entropy changes as against UO 2 2+ /HTTA/TBP system, where only the enthalpy change contributes to the stabilization.

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DSC and X-ray studies on side-chain crystallization of comb-like polymers

Fluorinatedn-alkyl acrylate and methacrylate polymers

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Y. Shibasaki, H. Saitoh, and K. Chiba

Abstract  

Thermal properties of acrylate and methacrylate monomers containing long-fluorocarbon chains (H(CF2)nCH2OCOCH=CH2, (FnA) and H(CF2)nCH2OCOC(CH3)=CH2, (FnMA), wheren=6, 8, 10) and their comb-like polymers have been investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction. The comb-like polymers (PF10A and PF10MA) with sufficiently long-fluorocarbon chains showed a simple melting and crystallizing behavior. For the fusion of PF10A in 1st heating, enthalpy change δH f was 18 kJ mol−1 and entropy change δS f was 45 J K−1 mol−1, while for PF10MA the values δH f and δSf were 5.3 kJ mol−1 and 14 J K−1 mol−1, respectively. Melted PF8A crystallized slowly, whereas PF8MA with same fluorocarbon chain and also both of PF6A and PF6MA with shorter fluorocarbon chains can hardly crystallize by the aggregation of side-chains. Effects of the length of side-chain and the flexibility of main chain on the side-chain crystallization of comb-like polymers are clear. Crystallization process of the methacrylate monomers was sensitively affected by the scanning rate of DSC measurement and the length of fluorocarbon chains.

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Abstract  

Measurement of the degree of crystallinity of the polymer matrix in a composite is complicated by the presence of the reinforcing additive. This is particularly the case in APC-2 in which as much as 70% can be carbon fibre. A First Law procedure, developed for determining the degree of crystallinity of PEEK, which involves direct measurement of the enthalpy changes associated with melting, crystallization and heat capacity changes, has found to be an effective method for the determination of the crystallinity of the PEEK matrix. The procedure has been applied to carbon fibre and glass fibre PEEK composites.

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Differential scanning calorimetric measurements have been carried out for Cul, CuBr, Agl, Ag2S, NaNO2, NaNO3 and KSCN. First-order phase transformations occur with the compounds Cul, CuBr, Agl and Ag2S; NaNO2, NaNO3 and KSCN exhibit λ-type transformations. The enthalpy changes due to phase transitions have been determined. Thermal hysteresis exhibited by these compounds have been examined in the light of their change in unit cell volumes.

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Abstract  

The solubility, solubility product and the thermodynamic functions for the CeF3–H2O system have been measured using the radiometric, conductometric and potentiometric techniques. The radiometric values for the solubility and solubility product, the lowest and more acceptable for reasons cited in previous papers, are 3.14·10–5 M and 2.17·10–17 respectively. The enthalpy change measured by the conductometric method is almost twice as that obtained by potentiometric method due to abnormal conductances registered at higher temperatures. The average values for Ho and Go and So at 298 K are 53.0±17.4, 91.7±4.0 and –129.7±58.2 KJ·mol–1 respectively. The positive values for Ho and Go and the negative value for So are indicative of the low solubility of this salt in water. The stability constants for the mono- and difluoride complexes of Ce(III) have been determined potentiometrically using unsaturated solution mixtures of Ce(III) and F. These values for CeF+ and CeF 2 + are 997±98 and (1.03±0.44)·105, respectively. Studies on pH dependence of the solubility shows that the solubility reaches a minimum value at a pH of about 3.2.

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Abstract  

A novel complex, [Pr(5-nip)(phen)(NO3)(DMF)] (5-nip: 5-nitroisophthalic acid; phen: 1,10-phenanthroline, DMF: N,N-dimethylformamide), was prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectrum and DTG-DSC techniques. The results show that the crystal is monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n with a=11.0876(6) Å, b=12.8739(7) Å, c=16.9994(8) Å; β=91.193(4)°, Z=4, D c=1.822 Mg m–3, F(000)=1320. Each Pr(III) ion is nine-coordinated by one chelating bidentate and two monodentate bridging carboxylate groups, one chelating bidentate nitryl group, one DMF molecule and one 1,10-phenanthroline molecule. The complex is constructed with one-dimensional ribbons featuring dinuclear units and the one-dimensional ribbons are further assembled into two-dimensional networks by strong π–π stacking interactions. The complex has high stability up to 500°C. The enthalpy change of formation of the compound in DMF was measured using an RD496-III type microcalorimeter with the value of –9.214±0.173 kJ mol–1.

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Abstract  

Solvent extraction of tetravalent thorium and trivalent europium ions from nitrate media into dichloromethane solution of triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) has been studied. The extractant was shown to be more efficient for europium than for thorium. A conventional log-log analysis reveals that the extraction of both metal nitrates takes place via the formation of the species with 1 : 2 metal to ligand ratio. Thermodynamic parameters i.e., ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° of the extraction process using 1,2-dichloroethane as diluent have been calculated based on the influence of the temperature on extraction equilibria in the range 293-313 K. While the extraction of europium is controlled by enthalpy changes, the extraction of thorium is an endothermic process and is driven by entropy changes. A comparison of these data with those obtained for the extraction of europium and thorium nitrates by two other related phosphorylated ligands, tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and diphenyl-N,N-dimethylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (DФDMCMPO), indicates that DФDMCMPO coordinates presumably as a chelating ligand.

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The thermal decomposition in the solid-phase has been studied by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques for a number of heterocyclic thiol complexes. The method of Coats and Redfern was used to study the kinetics of the thermal decomposition process. The enthalpy changes and activation energies for the decomposition have been calculated.

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Abstract  

The freezing and melting of water in semi-dilute (0.5–3.0%) solutions of the polysaccharide hyaluronanhave been investigated by modulated differential scanning calorimetry.High molecular weight hyaluronan inhibited nucleation of ice and significantly depressed thefreezing temperature in a dynamic scan conducted at –3.0°C min–1. Low molecular weight hyaluronan had a weaker and more variable effect on nucleation. Theeffects on nucleation, especially by the high molecular weight hyaluronan, are attributed tothe influence of a hyaluronan network on the formation of critical ice nuclei.Both high and low molecular weight hyaluronan reduced the melting temperature of ice by 0.4–1.1°C, depending on concentration. The enthalpy change associated with this transitionwas significantly reduced. If all of the enthalpy difference is attributed to the presence of non-freezing water, approximately 3.65 g water/g hyaluronan would be non-freezing. This result appears incompatible with published studies on hyaluronan samples of low water content. An alternative hypothesis and quantitative approach to analysis of the data are suggested. The data are interpreted in terms of a small amount of non-freezing water, and amuch larger boundary layer of water surrounding hyaluronan chains, which has slightly altered thermodynamic properties relative to those of bulk water. The boundary layer water behaves similarly to water trapped in small pores in solid materials and hydrogels.

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