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In this study five commercial product types (frozen sweet corn, fresh champignon, hazelnut chocolate bar, non-carbonated bottled water and Sedum species) were evaluated by two different sensory methods to determine how does the brand/type/variety knowledge influence the sensory perception based product judgement. One of the used methods is the blind sensory test where the samples have random 3-digits code and the remarkable signs are eliminated. The second is the test with knowledge of brand where the participants can see the brands and the package of the products. After the evaluation one-way ANOVA was conducted to identify the non-significant attributes. As the second step of the analysis least square difference method was used to determine which attributes are different at 95% or 99% significance level. During data analysis the common profile plots of the samples were created. The results of the study showed that there is only one sample (hazelnut chocolate bar) where significant difference appeared between the methods used.

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Community structure (species richness, dominance, similarity, diversity and seasonal dynamics) of the rove beetles (Staphylinidae) was examined in an abandoned, a conventional and an organic vineyard management plot of an experimental vineyard in Hungary.During the survey, a total number of 493 specimens belonging to 33 species were collected by pitfall traps. The dominant species were Sphenoma togata, Xantholinus linearis and Pseudocypus penetrans that presented 76.66% of all staphylinids collected in the vineyard. All of the most common staphylinid species had only one generation per year and overwintered as adults.There were significant differences in species richness and abundance; both were the highest in the abandoned plot. The dissimilarity in species composition between the differently treated plots was also high. The diversity was the highest in organic, and the lowest in conventionally treated plot, while the abandoned one showed an intermediate value.

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We have examined the community structure indices (species richness, dominance, diversity and similarity) of the rove beetles (Staphylinidae) assemblages in three differently treated apple orchards in Hungary.During the survey, a total number of 728 specimens belonging to 73 species were collected with pitfall traps. The dominant species were Omalium caesum, Drusilla canaliculata, Dexiogyia corticina, Mocyta orbata and Styloxys insecatus .Out of the differently treated orchards, the staphylinid abundance was the higher in the abandoned than in the conventionally treated and in integrated pest management orchards.The diversity profile of the communities showed that there were no differences between the diversity of the conventionally treated and abandoned orchards, and both were significantly more diverse than the IPM orchard. The similarity indices indicated that the forming dominance of the species was also influenced by the treatment. The distribution of the dominant species in each pitfall trap used in each plot shows the insecticide tolerance of the species

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Authors give report on the results of collection carried out between 1999 and 2002 on various trees and shrubs in Budapest and its surroundings, in Diósjenô and in Pilicsév. Out of the 29 woody plant species studied lachnid species were found on 19. A total of 17 lachnid species were identified belonging to 6 genera (Schizolachnus, Tuberolachnus, Eulachnus, Stomaphis, Lachnus and Cinara). Stomaphis mordvilkoi Hille Ris Lambers, 1933 is new for the Hungarian fauna. Of the 10 ant species attended lachnids Lasius niger (Linneus, 1758) was the most frequent.

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This study contains data of seven blue cultivars of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. and Vitis labrusca L.): Attika, Early Cardinal, Eszter, Chasselas rosé, Königliche Esther, Muscat bleu, and Nero. The following were determined in intact berries: malic, tartaric, and titratable acids, pH values, sugar content, and antioxidant capacity. Concentrations of the following compounds were determined in the pulp of analysed berries: phenolic acids and catechins. The last analysis focused on skins; in addition to the same phenolic acids and catechins, excluding epicatechin, analysed from pulp; ferulic acid and stilbenes were also studied. Higher contents of procyanidin B2 and gallic acid were found in the pulp as compared to those found in skins. Studies during the ripening stage showed that the higher ratio of procyanidin B2 and gallic acid concentrations in the pulp vs. skins relates to late-ripening cultivars, while for early-ripening cultivars a lower ratio was observed. Contents of phenolic acids, catechin, stilbenes, and anthocyanins were studied by means of LC-DAD; other compounds were measured by FTIR.

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Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., variety Castle rock) were osmoprimed in polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG; 20%) or K2HPO4 (200 mM) solution for 8 hours, 3 days or 7 days, while another group of seeds were left in water for the same periods. The GA3/ABA ratio was the most important hormone factor, which promoted germination in seeds soaked in H2O and led to improved germination performance. This ratio showed slight variations between hydroprimed and osmoprimed seeds after 8 hours, but afterwards, from 3 to 7 days, it was gradually increased in the osmoprimed seeds and was substantially elevated in seeds germinating in H2O. Changes in the concentrations of phenolic compounds suggested their possible role in germination silencing in the osmoprimed seeds, but at relatively low concentrations. Protein patterns showed no marked variations in hydroprimed and osmoprimed seeds after 8 hours, but different types were observed, particularly after 7 days. A comparison of the protein banding patterns of seeds after 1 day and 7 days in the osmoconditioning solutions (PEG or K2HPO4), H2O, GA3 or ABA showed certain treatment-specific protein bands, particularly in PEG and ABA solutions. Longitudinal sections of seeds (after 3 days) showed lysis of the micropylar endosperm and radicle protrusion in H2O or GA3, whereas in PEG or K2HPO4 solution the radicle expanded inside the seed and the micropylar endosperm was completely intact. In ABA solution, the whole endosperm was compact and the seed became extensively desiccated.

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors:
J. Szarka
,
O. Toldi
,
E. Szarka
,
J. Remenyik
, and
et al.

The fact that production is often unsuccessful even when resistant varieties are selected on the basis of the hypersensitive reaction can be attributed to the lack of adequate knowledge on plant disease resistance. In addition to specific plant responses to pathogen species, plants also possess an aspecific defense reaction which, instead of causing rapid tissue destruction, is based on the opposite strategy, protecting the plant against attack by microbes through tissue compaction achieved by cell enlargement and cell division. Genetic analyses carried out in pepper revealed that the general defense reaction was inherited as a monogenic recessive trait (gds). Pathophysiological observations indicate that the stimulus threshold is lower and the reaction rate faster than for specific defense reactions. Biochemical analyses suggest that, unlike plants exhibiting rapid tissue destruction, plants containing the gds gene do not require an oxidative burst elicited by hydrogen peroxide to stimulate the defense mechanism. It was also found that the regulation of the general defense system involves metabolic pathways that are independent of salicylic acid. The general and specific plant reactions form an integrated system of plant defense.

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Flavour profiling by descriptive analysis of apple wines fermented with different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and natural sources of fermentation with or without nitrogen source addition was carried out. Out of 45 attributes used, 38 were found significant and were employed for further evaluation. Generally, the intensities of many of the descriptors in the apple wines were low. Both the natural sources of fermentation (NSF) imparted different flavours notes like lactic, sharp, acetic and fruity to the wine. “W” strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave wines with higher astringency and phenolic flavours, ethyl acetate like, acetaldehyde like flavour, UCD 505 and UCD 522 fermentated wines were peculiar for more ethanolic, sweety and bitter taste, whereas UCD 595 imparted more phenolic, astringent, sour, and ethanolic flavour notes to the wines. The addition of nitrogen source (irrespective of source of fermentation) reduced the development of some flavours considered undesirable (acetic, amyl alcoholic, fusel alcoholic, vegetative). Addition of nitrogen source enhanced the intensity of some other flavour attributes like ethanolic and phenolic in the wines. Due to the same vinification practices (except for the source of fermentation) some modifications in the flavour attributes of apple wines fermented by natural source of fermentation were recorded. The flavour profile of wines fermented by different sources of fermentation, was also reflected in the chemical characteristics examined. Besides higher fermentability, the addition of nitrogen source also affected the physico-chemical characteristics of the wines and consequently, their flavour profile. Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the means of flavour scores generated from flavour profiling, weakly separated and characterized the wines fermented by different sources of fermentation but did not differentiate the wines fermented with or without nitrogen source. It is concluded that the descriptors described here can characterize apple wine of different quality attributes. The list of descriptors, concentration of standards and details of the technique have also been described.

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A new OPLC procedure, infusion-transfusion OPLC, has been developed and compared with conventional transfusion OPLC. Spot and/or band deformation caused by the total wetness front (which results from pore filling) was reduced, as was the bubble effect in on-line detection. Both techniques were used for rapid micro-preparative OPLC isolation on analytical adsorbent layers. In-situ clean-up and separation were used to isolate trigonelline from Leuzea extract. Modeling of loading capacity for isolation of ascorbigen was accomplished by fully off-line OPLC. Under optimized conditions ascorbigen of high purity was isolated from cabbage extract by transfusion and infusion-transfusion OPLC.

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The objective of the work reported is the development of red-edge methodology in order to characterize agricultural vegetation types and the determination of relationships between different vegetation (high biomass, low biomass) and thermal images. Therefore, the aim was to calculate red-edge position (REP) values and compare them to traditional vegetation indices (NDVI) and thermal images. Images were taken by a DAIS 7915 airborne imaging spectrometer that was equipped with an additional thermal imaging system. An exponential relationship was found between the on-curve-evaluation based (REP) and the broad band vegetation indices (NDVI). A linear relationship was determined between surface temperature differences ( ΔT s ) of the vegetation and NDVI values. A logarithmic relationship was found between surface temperature differences ( ΔT s ) of the vegetation of the canopy and red-edge position (REP). NDVI and REP are suitable vegetation indices when there are several bands available in the spectral range of 600-800 nm. REP was found to be a suitable method for analyzing and characterizing vegetated surfaces.

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