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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Anabel Cruz-Romero, Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Dora Romero-Salas, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, Sokani Sánchez-Montes, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, and Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano

, muscular pain, and conjunctival congestion [ 5 ]. Whereas jaundice and hemorrhage are clinical features present in patients with the severe form of leptospirosis [ 5 ]. In animals, the acute phase of the Leptospira infection is mostly sub-clinical, but

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commercial European wheat cultivars to Fusarium infection of head and seedling disease. Plant Pathol. , 56 , 55–64. Ferracane R. Comparison of commercial European wheat cultivars to

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Á. Vajda, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, L. Ózsvári, and Gy. Kasza

to pay for avoiding infection of climate change diseases, in particular tsutsugamushi disease . Osong Public Health Res. Perspect. , 4 ( 1 ), 16 – 20 . R øssvoll , E.H. , L

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98 Lactococcus lactis strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Turkey tested against 60 lactococcal lytic phages to determine their resistance levels. While 82 L. lactis strains were sensitive against lactic phages at different levels, 16 L. lactis strains showed resistance to all phages tested. Types of phage resistance among 16 L. lactis strains were identified as phage adsorption inhibition in eight strains, restriction/modification in six strains and abortive infection (heat sensitive phage resistance) in two strains, using three broad-spectrum phages Fpll 98-32, Fpld 67-42 and Fpld 67-44.

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indirectly the chili yield in Pakistan. Mal-cultural practice is one of those major reasons of yield loss [ 4 ]. Phytophthora root rot is another fungal infection of chilies which is very common in Pakistan. It also affects the chili price in international

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Field experiments were carried out with soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] on a Haplic Chernozem soil. Eleven treatment combinations were applied with increasing rates of fertilizers in three replicates. At full maturity the dry weight production, total biomass production, root weight, yield, shoot NPK concentration and severity of Macrophomina phaseolina infection were determined. The highest degree of Macrophomina infection was found in the lowest NPK treatment, while the lowest rate of disease was observed for the highest NPK combination. By increasing the NK supply, the degree of infection decreased. At the same fertilizer rates, significantly lower infection was observed at higher phosphorus levels. The dry weight production, total biomass production of the shoots, pod weight and nitrogen concentration of the shoots were negatively correlated with the rate and severity of infection, which was positively correlated with the concentration of phosphorus. No correlation was found between root weight and infection or between potassium concentration and infection.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Alejandra Mendoza-Larios, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, José Francisco Pérez-Ochoa, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Rábago-Sánchez, and Oliver Liesenfeld

, Davis PH : Toxoplasma on the brain: understanding host-pathogen interactions in chronic CNS infection . J Parasitol Res 2012 , ( 2012 ) 7. Blanchard N

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Okra seedlings tolerated soil-borne Rhizoctonia infection in strain dependent manner. No connection was revealed between pathogenicity of strains and their origin or taxonomic position. However, the okra proved to be susceptible to strains highly pathogenic to other host plants as well. R. zeae, a species new to European flora, was as aggressive to okra as the most potent R. solani strains. The effect of Rhizoctonia infection was more prominent on mass accumulation in hypocotyls than in cotyledons. The protein content and glutathione S-transferase activity increased in parallel with the evolution of disease syndrome. Metalaxyl, an acetanilide type systemic antioomycete fungicide induced glutathione S-transferase activity in cotyledons with 24 hours a phase, and this induction was more outstanding in symptomless seedlings grown in Rhizoctonia infested soil. It might be concluded, that the stress response of plants in tolerant host/parasite pair takes effect at higher level than in susceptible relationships.

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From the nineteen-nineties, cobweb disease caused serious losses for the mushroom sector in Europe, in the USA, and in Australia (Fletcher & Gaze, 2008), so it is one of the most notable fungal infections of cultivated white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). The aim of this study was to identify cobweb disease (Cladobortyum dendroides) caused cap spotting and brownish rot on the mushroom sporocarp, and to find a proper discrimination method in the case of this infection.Fruiting body samples were divided into 4 groups, a control one and three others treated with different chemicals that are tested against fungal infections. The groups were subdivided into 2 portions and the first was infected with cobweb disease. Images of the caps were recorded and their hyperspectral images were acquired in the wavelength range of 900–1700 nm.On the hyperspectral images infected and healthy areas were selected, on these average spectra differences were found around the known water peaks (1200 and 1450 nm). The spatial distribution of the water content can be used for the detection of the spoilage, because the infected areas showed different reflection values at these water absorption peaks.Support Vector Machine method was applied successfully to discriminate between the infected and control groups and Monte Carlo cross-validation was carried out.

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As an economically important insect pest, the adults of the grey corn weevil, Tanymecus dilaticollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were investigated for presence of pathogens. In 2009 and 2011, 1069 specimens were collected from maize and sunflower crops in 6 localities in Northern Bulgaria and studied in the laboratory. As a result of this study infections caused by a septate gregarine and Beauveria bassiana were established. In 2009, the prevalence of gregarine was 29.8% and of the fungi was 26.8%. Protozoan diseases were not found in the populations of T. dilaticollis investigated in 2011 but the weevils killed by mycosis were 52.55%±7.04 from all 901 analysed adults of the grey corn weevil. Morphometrical data about the gregarine found in the weevils were presented. Some isolates of B. bassiana were obtained in pure cultures. Occurrence of pathogens in T. dilaticollis populations was discussed with the view to their role as natural regulators of pest population density. The gregarine parasite is reported for first time for T. dilaticollis.

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