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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Julianna Rozália Sallai
,
Gábor Héjj
,
István †Ratkó
,
Aniella Hunka
,
Ilona Márkus
,
Judit Ortutay
,
Gábor Ormos
,
Andor Ujfalussy
,
László Szekeres
,
Antal Insperger
,
Tibor Varjú
, and
Géza Bálint

473 483 Czimbalmos, Á., Nagy, Zs., Varga, Z., et al.: Development of the Hungarian Norm of Sort Form SF-36 Health Survey. [Páciensmegelégedettségi vizsgálat SF-36

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The aim of this study was to compare an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA)-based and two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods with the results of the standard culture-based method EN ISO 6579:2002 (bacteriological standard method used in the European Union) for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw chicken meat. Our investigations were performed on 141 poultry samples sorted from supermarkets.Relative accuracy, relative specificity and relative sensitivity were determined. According to the ISO 16140:2003 criteria for validation of alternative microbiological methods, the ELFA-based method (VIDAS ICS2 + SLM), and real-time PCR methods (TaqMan, Bax) were comparable to the reference standard method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat. The use of these methods provide results within 48 hours with high sensitivity (100%). The TaqMan real-time PCR showed a relative specificity of 98% and both of the real-time PCR methods presented 100%.The VIDAS ICS2 + SLM and the Bax real-time PCR methods showed the highest relative accuracy (100%) and 99% in case of the TaqMan method. In conclusion, both the real-time PCR and the ELFA-based assay can be used as a rapid and user-friendly diagnostic method for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat samples.

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In this article I discuss the role of the market on the different branches of the agriculture in a Transylvanian village analysing the complex forms of the market and market behaviour that exist in a peculiar rural settlement. The village once had a sort of regional centre role where families who earned a living from non-agricultural activities lived in high number but this role had faded with socialist modernisation, thus nowadays the main sector is the agriculture. Regarding the links between agricultural production and the market the article delimitates three behavioural patterns, namely self-sufficiency, partial market integration and dominant market integration (differentiating the locations where farmers place their products, too), arguing that in fact these patterns may be found many times in the same households and there are no clear forms of market behaviour. In concordance I argue also that self-sufficiency is not more than a scientific tool used in the description of traditional economies but it does not really exist, and self-sufficiency and market are not opposed, but on the contrary, they complement each other. Consequently the article tries to demonstrate that the peasant farming depends in many ways — both in its consumption and production — on the market and that the market effects in fact mean inequalities.

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One of the most controversial areas of folkloristic studies are those concerning the theories on the genesis of genres, on the mobility and variability of the folkloric “text”, on the process of its transition from one genre to another. There are still a lot of unanswered questions and unproved hypotheses concerning these intimate mechanisms of a mentality system of a certain social group, a mechanism that generates the re-functionaliztion of a folkloric “text” according to specific needs and specific contexts. For beyond the simultaneous presence of the same motifs and themes in genres with different functionality we have to take into consideration the case of those “texts” that due to the change of the register, in Hyme's sense, in which the transaction of meaning takes place, of their mode of performance and even of the arena of their performance, are being re-functionalised into another folkloric genre. Starting from the special case of the Romanian narrative song Letin bogat (The Rich Latin) also known as Cacircntecul Nasului (The Godfather's Song) we shall try to analyse the ways a narrative song has been ritualised by means of its performance as a distinct sequence of the wedding ritual, developing in time into a sort of ritual song. More than that we shall also focus on the reverse process nowadays that of another semantic readaptation of the song due to the de-sacralisation of the wedding ritual and its transformation into a spectacular ceremony.

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The essay concerns the reservations attached to the declarations accepting the compulsory jurisdiction of the two International Courts. As early as during the 1920s when States consented to the compulsory jurisdicition of the first World Court they attached limitations on, conditions or reservations to their declarations of acceptance. For these declarations, there were no rules whatever prescribing any sort of uniformity or similarity of content in any aspects, and States formulated more and more complicated restrictions to their declarations of acceptance. After the International Court of Justice had been established, States continued the practice of attaching reservations to declarations of acceptance and, moreover, increased the number thereof, “inventing” more and more complicated reservations. Quite a few of such reservations placed much more limitations on the Court's compulsory jurisdiction than the interwar declarations of acceptance had done and a no small part of them left loopholes of escape from the jurisdiction recognized. In analysing the problems of permissible reservations, the author refers to the rules and criterias developed in international treaty law on the reservations to multilateral treaties and to the jurisprudence of the two Word Courts. She concludes that the declarations of acceptance are unilateral acts and the States are free to attach any reservation to their declarations of acceptance.

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An account is given using typing methods and detection of virulence genes of different serotypes of Escherichia coli isolated in Hungary. By hybridization using SLT-I and SLT-II probes and PCR method using stx1-2, eae and ehx primers we could differentiate O157 strains of different serotypes into eight  (stx, eae, ehxA positive; stx, eae positive; stx, ehxA positive; stx positive; eae, ehxA positive; eae positive; ehxA positive; stx, eae, ehxA negative) types. The discriminatory power of phage typing proves to be much higher than that of the plasmid profile. RAPD typing with different primers could confirm or exclude the subtypes identity of the isolated E. coli O157 serotypes. Escherichia coli O157:HNM isolates could be sorted in six different phage types and six different RAPD types with ERIC-1, in five RAPD types with ERIC-2 and in seven types with M13 primers. Escherichia coli O157:H7 showed six different phage types and three RAPD types with ERIC-1 and ERIC-2 and five types with M13 primers. According to our results the standard PFGE protocol [32] gives the opportunity to differentiate epidemiologically independent but evolutionary related or unrelated isolates, but the practical value of PFGE method for epidemiological purposes must be confirmed by other or more restriction enzymes or using an other protocol. Summarizing our results we suggest the use of phage and RAPD typing and in doubtful cases the PFGE method.

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Acta Geologica Hungarica
Authors:
Tamás Mikes
,
István Dunkl
,
Wolfgang Frisch
, and
Hilmar von Eynatten

We present the main petrographic and geochemical features of the Lower to Middle Eocene turbiditic sandstones from the northwestern portion of the External Dinaride flysch basin. Sampled areas cover SW Slovenia (Vipava and Brkini Basins) and the Istrian Peninsula (Trieste-Koper and Pazin Basins). Framework constituents of the lithic arenites reveal low-grade metamorphic, acidic plutonic, and to a lesser extent, mafic volcanic and ultrabasic sediment sources, with evidence for a small degree of sediment recycling as well. Among the processes that commonly influence sediment compositions, weathering in the source and sorting were probably negligible, but carbonate contribution of detrital or intrabasinal origin diluted the siliciclastic portions to various degrees. Main and trace element compositional data agree well with petrography and clearly indicate the predominance of felsic, crustal source lithologies. Exposed mafic-ultramafic source units were volumetrically less important.  From the Early Paleogene, extensive sediment mixing occurred in front of the Dinaride orogenic thrust wedge, with the components derived from different Dinaride units of felsic crystalline basement, platform carbonates and ophiolite. In the Eocene, a likely source of the mafic-ultramafic detritus was the Jurassic ophiolitic mélange in the NE Dinarides.

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Six wheat varieties representing different genotypes were tested under exposed and protected conditions in a three year herbicide provocation field trial at Nagygombos, Hungary. Three types of herbicide treatments (fluroxipir, bromoxynil and dicamba ai.) were applied in comparison with untreated and mechanical treated controls. Weed populations were sorted into two major groups according to the level of their occurrence. The result of experimental treatments were evaluated and  weed tolerance of varieties was determined. The magnitude of weed populations has shown significant differences. All weed control treatments, including chemical and mechanical applications, had an influence on weed development. Herbicide treatments had about fifty per cent, while mechanical applications had a nearly hundred per cent effect concerning weed reduction. The latter can be considered as a level of total weed extinction. High weed canopies were observed in the case of untreated controls only. Wheat cultivars have shown a variety specific yield response. The results obtained suggest varietal differences concerning weed tolerance. The extent of yield losses between wheat cultivars ranged from 4 to 18 per cent of grain yield. In the trial Martonvásári 19 and Martonvásári 21 wheat varieties were proven to have the best weed tolerance abilities. 

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Abstract  

The TG, DTG, DTA methods were used for investigation of the thermal degradation in static air atmosphere of some collagen-based materials (some sorts of collagen, recent manufactured parchments and tanned leathers, patrimonial (historical) leathers). At the progressive heating, all investigated materials exhibit two main successive processes, associated with the dehydration and thermo-oxidative degradation. The patrimonial leathers were divided in two groups, namely: a group containing the majority of the analyzed materials, for which the rates of the thermo-oxidation process are substantially lower than those corresponding to the recent manufactured leathers, and a group for which the rates of thermo-oxidation process are closed to those corresponding to the recent manufactured leathers. Consequently, if by the thermal analysis in air atmosphere of a leather sample, a value of the rate of the thermo-oxidation process smaller than that corresponding to the recent manufactured leathers is obtained, then the analyzed leather is a patrimonial one. The reciprocal statement of this qualitative criterion for distinction between recent manufactured leather and patrimonial leather is not valid. The DSC analyses of collagen-based materials were performed in air (DSC(air)) and in water (DSC(water)). The denaturation process takes place at lower temperatures in water than in air. Unlike recent manufactured leathers and parchments, each patrimonial leather exhibits on DSC(water) plot 2-4 peaks. Consequently, the number of peaks from DSC(water) curve could be another qualitative criterion for distinction between a recently manufactured leather and a patrimonial leather.

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Abstract  

Diphenylcarbonate (DPC) has been regarded as a potential substitute material for highly toxic phosgene, reacting with bisphenol A (BPA) in a phosgene-free process to produce polycarbonate (PC). For synthesizing DPC, methylphenylcarbonate (MPC) was the critical intermediate with potential flammability in a transesterification reaction from dimethylcarbonate (DMC) and phenol. Under the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) criterion, MPC is viewed as one sort of combustible liquid (Class IIIB). Once it fires or burns during storage, operation or transportation, it can cause a serious fire and explosion. However, researches are still scanty in mentioning the basic but crucial fire and explosion features of MPC to date. A sound background of material safety properties is essential for safe handling; in particular, flammability information is extremely crucial for a specific chemical during a unit operation to prevent any fire and explosion hazards. In this study, we investigated the explosion limits (LEL, UEL), maximum explosion pressure (P max), maximum rate of explosion pressure rise ((dP/dt)max), and gas or vapor explosion constant (K g) of MPC, according to its practical operating conditions (1 atm, 250°C, 21 vol.% O2) and by means of a 20 L vessel (20-L-Apparatus). By surveying and defining the experimental data through flammability tests, these basic but crucial safety-related parameters on flammability characteristics of MPC were proposed, so as to advance understanding and to avoid fire and explosion accidents for such relevant processes.

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