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Az alsó tápcsatornai endoszkópos ultrahangvizsgálat

Endoscopic ultrasound in the lower gastrointestinal tract

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Anna Fábián
,
Renáta Bor
,
Zsófia Bősze
,
Tibor Tóth
,
Péter Bacsur
,
Anita Bálint
,
Klaudia Farkas
,
Tamás Resál
,
Mariann Rutka
,
Tamás Molnár
, and
Zoltán Szepes

Az endoszkópiát és az ultrahangtechnikát ötvöző, a tápcsatorna falának és a környező szerveknek és szöveteknek a vizualizálására minimálisan invazív módon alkalmas endoszkópos ultrahangvizsgálat az 1980-as évekbeli kifejlesztése óta jelentős technikai fejlesztéseken esett át. Ezáltal a vizsgálat indikációs köre folyamatosan bővül, így a diagnosztikus indikációk mellett már terápiás beavatkozásokra is lehetőséget biztosíthat. A rectumtumorok stádiummeghatározásában a legfrissebb ajánlások alapján a rectalis ultrahangvizsgálat – néhány speciális esettől eltekintve – elsősorban másodvonalbeli, kiegészítő modalitásként jön szóba a mágneses rezonanciás képalkotás mellett. Előretekintő echoendoszkópok és a munkacsatornán bevezethető ultrahangos miniszondák alkalmazásával a proximálisabb vastagbél területére is kiterjeszthető az endoszkópos ultrahangvizsgálat alkalmazása. A rectalis vizsgálat emellett a subepithelialis laesiók differenciáldiagnosztikájában, a rectalis varixok azonosításában, valamint a gyulladásos bélbetegségek és a perianalis szövődmények diagnosztikájában is fontos szerepet játszhat. Az eljárás diagnosztikus pontossága bizonyos esetekben ultrahangvezérelt mintavétellel növelhető. A rectalis ultrahangvizsgálat terápiás alkalmazási területei egyelőre inkább ígéretes lehetőségek, mintsem a bevett klinikai gyakorlat részei, a jövőben azonban várhatóan egyre nagyobb teret nyerhetnek. A jelen összefoglaló célja az alsó tápcsatornai ultrahangvizsgálattal kapcsolatos általános ismeretek bemutatása mellett a vizsgálat indikációs körének áttekintése, beleértve a diagnosztikus és a terápiás indikációkat is. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(30): 1176–1186.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Ivana Klun
,
Nada Ćosić
,
Duško Ćirović
,
Dragan Vasilev
,
Vlado Teodorović
, and
Olgica Djurković-Djaković

Human trichinellosis and Trichinella infection in pigs are both still endemic in the Balkans, including Serbia. Because of the flow between the sylvatic and the domestic cycle of Trichinella spp., monitoring wildlife has been recommended for the risk assessment of Trichinella spp. infection in swine. We have previously shown the presence of Trichinella infection in wild carnivores including the wolf and the golden jackal, and here we report on Trichinella infection in several other mesocarnivore species. From a total of 469 animals collected between 1994 and 2013, Trichinella larvae were detected in 29 (6.2%, 95% CI = 4.0–8.4) animals, including 14 red foxes (4.7%), 7 wild cats (35%), 5 beech martens (4.8%), 2 pine martens (16.7%), and 1 European badger (6.25%). No Trichinella larvae were detected in the examined specimens of European polecats, steppe polecats and European otters. Species identification of the Trichinella larvae performed for 18 positive samples revealed T. spiralis in 77.8% and T. britovi in 22.2% of the isolates. Both species were detected in red foxes and wild cats. The predominance of T. spiralis in wildlife in Serbia indicates the (past or present) spillover of this pathogen from domestic to wild animals.

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Abstract

Globally, the spread of carbapenem-resistant strains has limited treatment options for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. This study aimed to determine the role of point mutations as well as the expression level of the oprD gene in the emergence of imipenem-resistant Paeruginosa strains isolated from patients referred to Ardabil hospitals. A total of 48 imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa collected between June 2019 and January 2022 were used in this study. Detection of the oprD gene and its amino acid alterations was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing techniques. The expression level of the oprD gene in imipenem-resistant strains was determined using the real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method. All imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were positive for the oprD gene based on the PCR results, and also five selected isolates indicated one or more amino acid alterations. Detected amino acid alterations in the OprD porin were Ala210Ile, Gln202Glu, Ala189Val, Ala186Pro, Leu170Phe, Leu127Val, Thr115Lys, and Ser103Thr. Based on the RT-PCR results, the oprD gene was downregulated in 79.1% of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains. However, 20.9% of strains showed overexpression of the oprD gene. Probably, resistance to imipenem in these strains is associated with the presence of carbapenemases, AmpC cephalosporinase, or efflux pumps. Owing to the high prevalence of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains due to various resistance mechanisms in Ardabil hospitals, the implementation of surveillance programs to reduce the spread of these resistant microorganisms along with rational selection and prescription of antibiotics is recommended.

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Abstract

Aino virus infection is responsible for epizootic and/or sporadic outbreaks of abortions, stillbirths and premature delivery among pregnant ruminants. The epizootiology of Aino virus infection is poorly defined in South Korea, therefore our aim was to assess its seroprevalence among sheep and goats. We also wanted to evaluate management and regional risk factors that might influence the frequency of infection. Between 2012 and 2013, 26 of 331 flocks (7.9%) and 139 of 915 heads (15.2%) were found serologically positive. In 2018, when samples were again collected in the same regions, 35 of 308 flocks (11.4%) and 89 of 735 heads (12.1%) showed serum-neutralising antibodies against Aino virus. Our results revealed that the age class and history of reproductive problems in the flocks are connected to an increased risk of being positive. The management risk factor attributes showed that preventive measures, such as the routine application of insecticide in farms, decreased the odds for seropositivity to Aino virus (OR = 0.453, P = 0.001). We observed a significant difference in the individual likelihood of being positive in the southern and western provinces with respect to that in the northern and eastern provinces, respectively (OR = 2.199, P < 0.001 and OR = 2.177, P < 0.001). The results of this study may serve as a basis for future epizootic studies on Aino virus infection in South Korea.

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Abstract

Background

Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and systemic inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine the level of serum level of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in preeclampsia and to compare normal pregnant, mild preeclamptic, and severe preeclamptic women.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1 and hsCRP in peripheral blood obtained from normal pregnant (n=40), mild preeclamptic (n=37), and severe preeclamptic women (n=38). A concentration of soluble adhesion molecule was determined with enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. hsCRP was measured with immunoturbidometric.

Results

There was significant difference in the means serum hsCRP between normal pregnant women and mild preeclamptic women (P<0.05). Serum concentration of hsCRP and sVCAM-1 (ng/mL) were significantly higher in severe preeclampsia (P<0.05) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in hsCRP and sVCAM-1 levels between mild and severe (P<0.05). There was no difference in the mean sVCAM-1 between normal pregnant and mild preeclamptic women.

Conclusion

We have determined the serum concentration of VCAM-1 and hsCRP in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. sVCAM-1 is elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy, and hsCRP is elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with mild preeclampsia and normal pregnancy.

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Abstract

Irreversible pulpitis is an inflammation of the tooth pulp caused by an opportunity-driven invasion of the pulp space by oral microbiota typically prevalent in the oral cavity. Microbial organisms are extensively recognised to be the fundamental cause of endodontic infections and treatment failures. Previously, bacterial species responsible for these infections were largely recognised using conventional microbial culture techniques, lending credence to the widely held belief that anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria frequently enter the pulp space and trigger endodontic infections. The advent of novel technologies grants the advantage of detecting and studying microbial populations via an amalgamation of the modern “Omics” techniques and meticulous bioinformatics analysis, additionally detecting the metatranscriptome, metaproteome and metabolome along with the metagenome. Amongst these analytical strategies, metagenomic analyses are essentially pragmatic for investigating the oral microbiome. Metagenomics favor not only assessment of microbial composition in diseased conditions, but also contributes to detection of novel, potentially pathogenic species inclusive of non-viable bacteria. The present review describes current knowledge of root canal microbiome, including its composition and functional attributes, the novel strategies available for detection of microbiome as well as challenges associated and provides some crucial pointers for areas of future research.

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#Erasmus+ – avagy sebészeti kutatás-fejlesztés és innováció a Semmelweis Egyetem Kísérletes és Sebészeti Műtéttani Tanszékén

#Erasmus+ – or surgical research, development and innovation at the Department of Surgical Research and Techniques at Semmelweis University

Magyar Sebészet
Authors:
Krisztina Berner-Juhos
,
József Sándor
,
Györgyi Szabó
,
Daniella Fehér
,
Domokos Csukás
,
Krisztián Bocskai
, and
Andrea Ferencz

Összefoglaló. Az Európai Unió ciklusról ciklusra egyre több forrást különít el kutatás-fejlesztés és innováció támogatására. A projektek keretében megalakult munkacsoportok közreműködésével olyan innovatív megoldások születhetnek, amelyek választ adhatnak napjaink sürgető társadalmi kérdéseire. A Semmelweis Egyetem Városmajori Szív- és Érgyógyászati Klinika Kísérletes és Sebészeti Műtéttani Tanszéke 2014-től vesz részt az Erasmus+ program által támogatott nemzetközi konzorciumokban, amelyek fő célja a sebészeti szakképzés oktatás-módszertani modernizációja, illetve az IT-technológia nyújtotta újdonságok páneurópai szintű integrálása a sebészeti rezidensképzésbe. A közlemény röviden összefoglalja azokat a nemzetközi projekteket, amelyekben a Tanszék az elmúlt 7 évben részt vett.

Summary. The European Union is earmarking more and more resources each cycle to support research, development and innovation, and the projects set up by the working groups are helping to develop innovative solutions to reflecting societal issues of today. Since 2014, the Department of Surgical Research and Techniques of the Cardiovascular Center at Semmelweis University has been participating in international consortia supported by the Erasmus+ programme, which aim to modernise the teaching methodology of surgical training and to integrate IT technology into the training of surgical residents at pan-European level. This paper briefly summarises the international projects in which the Department has been involved over the last 7 years.

Open access

Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Trueperella pyogenes are three bacterial pathogens closely associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). In the current study, a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of these three bacteria in cultures was established. After serial optimisation, the detection limit of the method for the genomic DNA of the three bacteria was 40 pg/μl. The method could detect the genomic DNA of these three bacteria but not the genomic DNA of seven other bacterial strains. Together with the bacterial enrichment technology, the multiplex PCR could be used for detecting the three bacteria in animal tissues. This method might be valuable for speeding up laboratory diagnosis and directing the treatment of BRDC to these three bacterial pathogens.

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environmental monitoring [ 7 ]. Many technologies aimed at microbial identification with different evolutionary levels and applying varied resources have been developed. In the early stages of this evolutionary process, the research was directed and

Open access

S. P. Walsh 2008 Personality and self-esteem as predictors of young people's technology use Cyberpsychology and Behavior 11 6

Open access