Among Franz Liszt’s symphonic poems, Hunnenschlacht (“The Battle of the Huns,” 1857) and Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe (“From the Cradle to the Grave,” 1883) were inspired by the visual arts. With these works, Liszt attempted to translate painterly figurations into music; this intention is particularly embodied in his symphonic transformation of Wilhelm Kaulbach’s monumental fresco, Hunnenschlacht. Liszt was attracted by the idea of religious devotion and at the same time identified himself with the Huns. This paper considers the ways in which Liszt expressed the narrative plot and imitated the visual qualities of the Hunnenschlacht fresco by deploying innovative instrumental techniques and a progressive formal structure. This work illustrates Liszt’s interest in combining different art forms, and the prominent use of an apotheosis is an expression of the Beethovenian symphonic model. Liszt shared with early-nineteenth-century Romantics such as E. T. A. Hoffmann an interest in synaesthesia, associating colors with sounds. In Hunnenschlacht, he used the graphic illustration of the fresco as his primary source, yet he also attempted to convey the various tone colors associated with the figures. This interpretative process is explained in his preface to the score, in which Liszt describes the lights and colors associated with the Huns, the Romans, and the Cross. The peculiar treatment of instrumentation, including the use of wooden and sponge drum sticks, organ, unusual combinations of instruments, and an audacious treatment of dynamics, vibrantly depict the distinct colors or lights that envelop the principal figures in the painting.
Hungarian has a number of apparently synonymous time adverbs that can measure the duration of time intervals. The paper explores these adverbs in some detail, and argues that contrary to appearances, none ofthem are freely interchangeable. The starting point is a discussion of the property of homogeneity that time adverbs are sensitive to. The paper argues for a specific treatment of homogeneity and a preliminary adverb definition based on that treatment. It is proposed that some, but not all, Hungarian time adverbs share the default definition. The diverging adverbs may (a) contain a covert frequency predicate or (b) not measure the duration of the time interval directly, but by determining an endpoint of the interval. Hungarian time adverbs also differ in the range of time intervals they can measure; some, but not all adverbs can measure all available time intervals including the event, iterative, habitual and reference time. This variability in time adverb modification is arbitrary and needs to be explicitly determined for each adverb. Apart from discerning the interpretation of Hungarian time adverbs, the conclusions have a more general impact. On the one hand, apparently homogeneous adverbs can have disparate definitions. On the other, it is necessary to permit explicit, arbitrary constraints on adverbial modification. It is also argued that time adverbs can impose non-local restrictions on the eventuality modified, strengthening the need for a powerful theory of adverbial modification.
In the second half of the 16th century increasing interest in Greco-Roman drama lead to a revival of the fabula praetexta, i.d. plays staging Roman history. One of the finest examples is the “Lucretia, tragoedia nova” by the Silesian writer Samuel Iunius (*1567). In dramatizing the Livian story the poet follows Greek tragedies (e.g. Sophocles, Aias), but first of all imitates Vergil by assimilating Lucretia to Dido. Due to further parallels in structure and narrative technique Iunius' play even emerges as a kind of dramatic counterpart to the Aeneid. The choice of the subject as well as its treatment seem to suggest that the author lent his voice to political criticism and Anti-Habsburg opposition.
The article deals with the problem of a Greek collection of maxims in Arabic translation. The collection under examination has two special features among the many similar collections: 1) In this gnomology each one of the maxims ascribed to Aristotle is compared with one of the maxims abstracted from the poems of al-Mutanabbi’ (915–965), who lived in the tenth century. 2) The maxims deal with some traditional concepts of the late antique moral teaching usual in other collections (desire, pleasure, wisdom, etc.), but their negative treatment (e.g. that of desire and pleasure) is turned into a positive one many times in our collection. The maxims quoted in this collection cannot be ascribed to Aristotle, but they are not alien to the Aristotelian tradition. This collection together with other ones seems to prove that maxims played a much more important role in the late antique literature, than it used to be thought earlier.
The goal of this paper is to analise the magical elements of mesopotamian medical texts. The Mesopotamian concept of illness is interpreting physical complaints and pain, that is symptoms and illness, as messages from the gods (omens), claiming that medical texts deal with a specific type of this kind of message transfer, namely those cases when the bad omen occurs on the human body. In this article I introduce the sources and the cultural context of Mesopotamian medical texts, then I examine the magical elements in the process of healing treatment. We can conclude that the minor role of practice in the curing of illnesses is supported by the magic elements (e.g. aspects of numerology, or magic circles) identifiable in each step of healing with medicaments.
Bartók left behind over 300 folksong arrangements. In the field of vocal music, three series are based on Slovak folksongs: Five Slovak Folksongs for male choir (1917, BB 77), Four Slovak Folksongs for mixed choir and piano (1917, BB 78) and Village Scenes (1924, 1926, BB 87). The series are strongly connected among themselves in terms of textual content, formal concept, and treatment of folk melodies. In Village Scenes, Stravinsky’s influence is unmistakable. Not only was Bartók “influenced” by Stravinsky but he also imitated and even “quoted” Les Noces (1923). The article examines the relationship between the two works using Bartók’s 1928 essay Hungarian Folk Music and New Hungarian Music as a point of reference.
What happens when we consider “poetics,” a term and concept well-known from Aristotle’s philosophical treatment of Greek epic
and tragic drama, in the larger context of world literature as we understand it today? What would be the essential elements
in the definition of poetics? What sort of critical issues it can address, and what resources it may draw on in the world’s
various literary traditions? In the ancient world, East Asia and South Asia all have distinct traditions of literary expression
with emphasis and critical conceptualizations rather different from those of the Greek-Roman tradition. What would the consideration
of poetics in a broad cross-cultural perspective lead us to? In this presentation, these are the theoretical issues to be
explored to arrive at a better understanding of poetics not only in the Western tradition, but truly of the world, with the
richness of content and critical functions considered with relation to a global concept of world literature.
Ennek a dolgozatnak a tárgya a morfológia, illetve szótan ókori grammatikákban megmutatkozó felfogása, melyet kétféle összefüggésben helyezünk el: egyrészt a morfológia mai modelljeinek tipológiájában, másfelől pedig azok tudománytörténeti alakulásában. Áttekintjük, hogy milyen érvek szólnak a mai nyelvelméletben az ókori típusú, szigorú értelemben morfológia nélküli szótan mellett. Szólunk arról is, hogy hogyan bontakozott ki a morfológiai szerkezet egyre pontosabb felismerése a magyar nyelv régi, latin alapú grammatikáiban a 16–17. század folyamán.
The idea of ‘national’ in Croatian 19th-century music shows evolutionary tendencies, which can be articulated in four phases. It started in the period 1800–1830 as a construct leading towards higher general musical standards, displaying universality above particularity as its ideal. It continued in the period 1830–1850 with pragmatic treatment of music as incidental to poetry, supporting non-musical, mostly political issues, where universality equaled particularity. It achieved in the period 1850–1870 the status of a substantial part in the scholarly re-construction of national history, still equaling universality with particularity. Finally, as a concept of ethnic or national art music, it reached in the period 1870–1916 a status of general interest in national cultural life and education, displaying particularity above universality.
In spite of their differences, Two-level Conceptual Semantics, Generative Lexicon Theory and Relevance Theory also have similarities with respect to treatment of the relation of word meanings and contexts. Therefore, the three theories can be considered as complementing each other in analysing word meanings in utterances. In the present paper I will outline a conception of lexical pragmatics which critically amalgamates the views of these theories and has more explanatory power than each theory does separately. Such a lexical pragmatic conception accepts lexical-semantic representations which can be radically underspecified and allow for other methods of meaning description than componential analysis. As words have underspecified meaning representations, they reach their full meanings in corresponding contexts (immediate or extended) through considerable pragmatic inference. The Cognitive Principle of Relevance regulates the way in which the utterance meaning is construed.