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The aims of the present study were to estimate the general combining ability (GCA) and the specific combining ability (SCA) effects controlling type II FHB resistance across environments in a set of European winter wheat varieties and, for purposes of future selection, to identify potential combinations of parents with suitable levels of FHB resistance. Parental varieties as well as F1 generations were evaluated under both field and greenhouse conditions in two years. The results of the present study indicate that in the F1 generation mean DON content was relatively lowest after crossing of moderately resistant parents (Sakura/Bakfis, Sakura/Federer, Petrus/Bakfis, and Sakura/Petrus), and mean DON content is low also after crossing the moderately resistant Bakfis variety with the susceptible Biscay and Cubus varieties. Evaluation of crosses in the F1 generation was followed by evaluation of selected crosses (derived from the Bakfis and Sakura varieties) in the F2 generation. Correlations between F1 and F2 were highly significant in relation both to their DON content and visual symptom score (VSS), as well as between the individual experiments (and in the different years). The only exception was in the case of the 2014 field experiment, when inoculation was successful but conditions were not optimal for the disease to progress and DON to accumulate. The selection of a suitable parental variety (with a high GCA) can markedly influence the success rate of breeding for resistance to FHB. Detection of high SCA in the F1 generation is important for directing breeders to promising combinations for achieving FHB resistance. It was demonstrated here that low DON content may be achieved even after crossing a moderately resistant variety with susceptible varieties. Another possibility is to make use of heterosis directly for acquiring resistance in hybrid wheat (for decreasing DON content and manifestation of symptoms).

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Four Croatian winter wheat cultivars at 20% moisture were dried at temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 100 °C until the moisture decreased to 14%. Two cultivars had improved quality, whereas two cultivars had lower quality characteristics. The examinations involved determination of seed germination, enzymatic activities and chemical indicators of grain properties. On the basis of the obtained results it could be concluded that the drying temperature of wheat should not exceed 50 °C in order to preserve biologically undamaged grain. Gluten of lower swelling ability increases sedimentation value at drying temperatures of 60 and 70 °C. For wheat samples with high quality gluten the wheat grain drying process at a temperature of 50 °C improved the wheat quality regarding the increased ability of gluten swelling. An increase in the drying temperature did not influence the characteristics of starch components. Diastatic and proteolytic activities of wheat decreased at a higher drying temperature.

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Matuz J.-Tanács L.-Petróczi I. M.-Gerő L. (1993): Do herbicide treatments influence the protein content and baking quality of winter wheat varieties? (in Hungarian). Tudományos Közlemények, KÉE SZÉF, Szeged 166

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: István Kristó, Kálmán Gyuris, Mária Torma, Margit Hódi-Szél, and István Petróczi

Baniuniene, A. — Zekaite, V.: 2005. Development of winter wheat in relation to sowing date, seed rate and weather conditions. Zemdirbyste-Mokslo-Darbai. 92. 80–92. pp. Zekaite V

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473 476 Horvat, D. — Loncaric, Z. — Vukadinovic, V. — Drezner, G. — Bertic, B. — Dvojković, K. (2006) The influence of mineral fertilisation on winter wheat yield and quality

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6 7 Matuz J. — Markovics E. — Ács E. — Véha A.: 1999. Study of relationships between the technological quality characters of the flour of winter wheat varieties

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Georg Drezner, Kresimir Dvojkovic, Daniela Horvat, Dario Novoselovic, Alojzije Lalic, Darko Babic, and Josip Kovacevic

Trials with seven genotypes of winter wheat were set up as RCB design at four locations in continental part of Croatia in three repetitions during 2004 and 2005 year. Grain yield and indirect quality traits were analyzed. Statistically significant differences for all traits were found among cultivars (G), locations (L) and years (Y), and for all interactions (GxL, GxY, LxY, GxLxY) except for the interaction GxLxY for protein and wet gluten content and for the interaction term GxL for grain yield. In 2004 year higher grain yields were realized as compared to 2005. The same trend has been reached for all analysed quality traits (2004 was better than 2005) except for sedimentation value. The highest grain yields, test weights and wet gluten content were realized at location Osijek. Highest protein content and sedimentation value were found at location Nova Gradiska. The most yielding genotypes with lowest coefficient of variation for grain yield over locations and years were Seva, Demetra and Srpanjka, while the most favorable quality traits with the lowest coefficient of variation were found for Golubica, Zitarka and Panonka.

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különböző termőhelyen termesztett búzafajták lisztminőségi paramétereinek összehasonlítása. (Comparasion of quality parameters of winter wheat species cultivated on different sites.) Növénytermelés, 44.1.11–19. Győri

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Higher plant population and nitrogen management is an adopted approach for improving crop productivity from limited land resources. Moreover, higher plant density and nitrogen regimes may increase the risk of stalk lodging, which is a consequence of complex interplant competition of individual organs. Here, we aimed to investigate the dynamic change in morphology, chemical compositions and lignin promoting enzymes of the second basal inter-nodes altering lodging risk controlled by planting density and nitrogen levels. A field trial was conducted at the Mengcheng research station (33°9′44″N, 116°32′56″E), Huaibei plain, Anhui province, China. A randomized complete block design was adopted, in which four plant densities, i.e., 180, 240, 300, and 360 × 104 ha−1 and four N levels, i.e., 0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha−1 were studied. The two popular wheat varieties AnNong0711 and YanNong19 were cultivated. Results revealed that the culm lodging resistance (CLRI) index of the second basal internodes was positively and significantly correlated with light interception, lignin and cellulose content. The lignin and cellulose contents were significantly and positive correlated to light interception. The increased planting density and nitrogen levels declined the lignin and its related enzymes activities. The variety AnNong0711 showed more resistive response to lodging compared to YanNong19. Overall our study found that increased planting densities and nitrogen regimes resulted in poor physical strength and enzymatic activity which enhanced lodging risk in wheat varieties. The current study demonstrated that stem bending strength of the basal internode was significantly positive correlated to grains per spike. The thousand grain weight and grain yield had a positive and significant relationship with stem bending strength of the basal internode. The results suggested that the variety YanNong19 produces higher grain yield (9298 kg ha−1) at density 240 × 104 plants ha−1, and 180 kg ha−1 nitrogen, while AnNong0711 produced higher grain yield (10178.86 kg ha−1) at density 240 × 104 plants ha−1 and with 240 kg ha−1 nitrogen. Moreover, this combination of nitrogen and planting density enhanced the grain yield with better lodging resistance.

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Kutasy E.— Csajbók J.— Hunyadi Borbély É.: 2005. Relations between yield and photosynthetic activity of winter wheat varieties. Cereal Research Communications Vol. 33 no. 1 173–176 pp. Hunyadi Borbély

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