This study examines the occurrence of aflatoxins (AFS) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in bread and durum wheat samples. A total of 141 samples were collected from eleven different regions of Turkey. An analytical method based on liquid extraction, immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of AFs and OTA levels. As a result, AFs and OTA were detected in 2% and 9.2% of wheat samples at concentrations varying from 0.21 to 0.44 µg kg−1 and from 0.1 to 3.2 µg kg−1, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) were found positive in samples ranging between 0.21–0.35 µg kg−1 and 0.094 µg kg−1, respectively. However, none of the samples contained aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). The study also recommended that contamination levels in wheat and wheat-based products should be routinely monitored in greater sample numbers to insure food safety.
Recently, four novel genes named Pinb-2, with 57–60% sequence similarity with wild-type allele Pinb-D1a coding for grain-hardness related puroindoline B have been shown to occur on homoeologous group 7 chromosomes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). In the present report, T. monococcum ssp. monococcum (Am genome) revealed a Pinb-2 gene with a poly-G tract and an in-frame TAG stop codon at the 5′ terminus of the coding DNA sequence. The stop codon was observed in 53 accessions of different geographic origins, suggesting that Pinb-2 in ‘monococcum’ wheat is unlikely to be expressed. By contrast, the coding DNA sequence of Pinb-2 in T. urartu (Au genome) was found to be 99% identical to its counterpart on chromosome 7AL in bread and durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) wheat. Moreover, a sequence very similar to “urartu” Pinb-2 was found in tetraploid wheat T. timopheevii and hexaploid wheat T. zhukovskyi. This latter species exhibited an additional Pinb-2 pseudogene inherited from T. monococcum. The results are discussed in relation to the lineage of T. zhukovskyi and the potential role of Pin-b2 on kernel texture.
The low seedling vigour of Russian wildrye grass (
) (RWR) limits its use. Shading from durum wheat (
) reduced RWR leaf number, tiller number, leaf area and seedling dry weight in a growth room experiment. Treatments with similar shading differed in tiller number and dry weight, which suggested that light quality may have also contributed to these responses. In a second growth room experiment, light intensity (PAR) and red:far-red light ratio (670:730 nm) were altered by coloured plastic filters suspended above seedlings of Russian wildrye, crested wheatgrass (
) (CWG) and Dahurian wildrye grass (
) (DWR). Leaf area, tiller number and dry weight of RWR seedlings were reduced by declining red:far-red light ratio while light intensity differences at similar red:far-red ratio did not affect these variables. CWG exhibited similar responses to declining red:far-red light ratio as RWR, except that it exhibited a seedling weight response to light intensity. DWR tiller number was not responsive to low red:far-red light ratio but rather to low light intensity. However, DWR seedling weight, tiller weight and leaf area were responsive to declining red:far-red light ratio. These results indicate that RWR seedlings are sensitive to light quality changes caused by neighbouring plants.
Authors:G. Drezner, J. Gunjača, D. Novoselović, and D. Horvat
Nachit, M.M., Nachit, G., Ketata, H., Gauch, H.G., Zobel, R.W. 1992. Use of AMMI and linear regression models to analyze genotype-environment interaction in durumwheat. Theor. Appl. Genet.
Authors:Sonja Maric, Tihomir Cupic, Goran Jukic, Ivan Varnica, and Dario Dunkovic
Akcura M. — Kaya Y. — Taner S.: 2005. Genotype-environment interaction and phenotypic stability analysis for grain yield of durumwheat in the central Anatolian region. Turk J Agric For no. 29 369–375 pp
Authors:X.G. Hu, J. Liu, L. Zhang, B.H. Wu, J.L. Hu, D.C. Liu, and Y.L. Zheng
Grains of 12 accessions of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. ssp. timopheevii (AAGG, 2n = 4x = 28) and one bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS) and one durum wheat cultivar Langdon (LDN) grown across two years were analyzed for grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. All the 12 tested T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii genotypes showed significantly higher concentration of grain Fe and Zn than CS and LDN. Aboundant genetic variability of both the Fe and Zn concentrations was observed among the T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii accessions, averagely varied from 47.06 to 90.26 mg kg−1 and from 30.05 to 65.91 mg kg−1, respectively. Their grain Fe and Zn concentrations between years exhibited a significantly positive correlation with the correlation coefficients r = 0.895 and r = 0.891, respectively, indicating the highly genetic stability. Flag leaf possessed twice or three times higher concentrations for both Fe and Zn than grain, and a significantly high positive correlation appeared between the two organs with r = 0.648 for Fe and r = 0.957 for Zn concentrations, respectively, suggesting flag leaves might be indirectly used for evaluating grain Zn and Fe contents. Significant correlations occurred between grain Fe and Zn concentrations, and between grain Zn concentration and the two agronomic traits of plant height and number of spikelets per spike. Both the concentrations were not related to seed size or weight as well as NAM-G1 gene, implying the higher grain Fe and Zn concentrations of T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii species are not ascribed to concentration effects of seed and the genetic control of NAM-G1 gene. There might be some other biological factors impacting the grain’s Zn and Fe concentrations. These results indicated T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii species might be a promising genetic resource with high Fe and Zn concentrations for the biofortification of current wheat cultivars.
Authors:O. Bilgin, A. Y. Bilgin, T. Gençtan, and I. BAŞER
Korkut, K. Z., Başer, I., Bilir, S. (1993): Studies on correlation and path analysis in durumwheats. pp. 183-187. Symposium of DurumWheat and Its Products, Ankara.
Studies on correlation and path analysis in durumwheats