Im Beitrag wird gefragt, inwiefern in den USA Versuche, dieser Literatur aus multikultureller Sicht gerecht zu werden, tatschlich
erfolgreich gewesen sind. Fhrt die in den USA gefhrte Diskussion ber Minority Literature nicht zu einer kultur-ethnischen Auslegung einzelner Werke? Literaturwissenschaftler nicht deutscher Herkunft, die in Deutschland
leben und ber Migrationsliteratur arbeiten, betonen, dass die 'interkulturellen Dominanten' dieser Literatur vornehmlich
von Literaturwissenschaftlern der 'zweiten Generation' erfasst werden knnen, denn nur sie verfgen ber ein erlebtes Wissen
in Sprache und Kultur mindestens zweier Lnder. Im Beitrag werden Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede der drei Grundpositionen
- die nordamerikanische, die deutsche und die der Wissenschaftler nicht deutscher Herkunft - herausgearbeitet und insbesondere
im Hinblick auf die Thematisierung des multikulturellen Diskurses hinterfragt.
This essay is based on Ken Saro-Wiwa’s novel, titled Sozaboy. Apart from using this novel to interpret and locate the history and politics of Nigeria within a particular period, the essay
tried to look at the 1967–1970 Nigeria’s civil war as fictionalized by Ken Saro-Wiwa, the nature of the language and implications
on the English language in Nigeria. It also attempted an understanding of the moral and political consequences of war on humanity
in general and the special effect of the Nigerian civil war on the minority areas within the Biafran enclave in particular
as epitomized by Dukana, the setting of Sozaboy. The essay concluded that the novel itself was a bold attempt at experimentation
with language, considering the fact that it was written in what the author himself described as “rotten” English.
A tanulmány bevezetője röviden ismerteti azokat a körülményeket, amelyek eredményeképpen az ír nyelv saját országában kisebbségi nyelvvé vált. A cikk fő része részletesen tárgyalja az ír terminológia-fejlesztés történetét, és megvizsgálja annak kontextusát, hátterét, speciális körülményeit, a modern értelemben vett terminológia-fejlesztés kialakulását és jelenlegi állapotát, valamint a terminusalkotás alapelveit és módszereit, illetve az írországi terminusalkotáshoz és terminológia-fejlesztéshez kapcsolódó problémákat.
This paper concentrates on communication with minority groups through a third party or intermediary in the public services. The variety of settings in which these encounters take place (hospitals, schools, government offices, police stations, customs checkpoints, etc.) raises questions on the role played by this intermediary, the importance of culture, the recognition of his/her job as a profession, the acceptance of the varied forms of professionalism, and the consideration of the different attitudes of the society and its institutions. This study concentrates on the different names and roles assigned to this link, with special emphasis on one of them: the interpreter and translator, and the debate surrounding the new roles he/she should (or should not) perform.
If one needs to obtain some information on the Roman conquest of Pannonia, his job seems to be easy: he has just to read both the ancient sources and many a modern work about this issue. But there are three problems: 1) the Greek and Latin sources are scanty, very poor in details and sometimes misleading; 2) the modern scholars often echo and deepen the errors of the ancient sources while adding other mistakes of their own; 3) mainstream opinions as well as minority views about Pannonian ethnography are premised on false or faulty assumptions and distort further our understanding of the historical events. This paper wants to correct both ancient errors and modern ones. Its author tried to reconstruct a coherent and clear picture of bellum Pannonicum in 12-9 BC; he also aimed at throwing new light on the ethnic composition of the Pannonian tribes.
In the 1980s, a single female performer, Márta Sebestyén, defined Hungarian folk singing. Sebestyén’s voice, with the heavy ornamentation and chest timbre of the Hungarian-Transylvanian sound, became popular worldwide. Even as Sebestyén’s voice was popularized via electronic dance mixes and film soundtracks, in live performances and interviews she emphasized the ethnic minority Hungarians in Transylvania who served as her musical sources. The 21st century has seen the ascent of several young female singers in Hungary. They have taken the advocate role in a different direction, dramatizing the experiences of other underprivileged groups and of women. They face additional challenges: currently in Hungary, every sphere of artistic life, including folk music, must demonstrate economic independence. The young folk divas front their own groups and develop high concepts for their albums and performances. It remains to be seen whether their forthrightness will gain the same success as the modest image of the classic singer of the Hungarian folk revival style.
The study sums up the ethnographical achievements of
Hiador Sztripszky (1876-1945), a now little-known Hungarian-Ruthenian
ethnographer, bibliographer, linguist, literary historian and translator. The
researcher, who had a thorough knowledge of the cultural history and
ethnography/folkloristics of the Hungarians and the peoples living together
with them, in particular of the Ruthenians and Romanians, did a great deal to
study and make known the ethnocultural processes and influences. He also played
a big role in collecting the material cultural heritage of the peoples of
Transylvania for museums. After the Versailles Peace Treaty he was sent into
early retirement as having been involved in the policy on the minorities, and
in the last 25 years of his life he achieved substantial results mainly as a
philologist in the study of the history and connections of the different ethnic
groups and denominations. In addition to Sztripszky's work in ethnography, the
study also discusses areas related to the latter problem.
The present essay is devoted to the various manifestations of transformation in Slavic literatures after 1989, when 300 million
Slavs found themselves in the cultural paradigm diametrically opposed to the communist one, but not quite what it was designed
to be by the dissidents and opposition members, i.e. advocates of civil society. This comparative panorama of Slavic literatures
is presented from the perspective of postmodern culture and philosophy (Lyotard, Bauman, Rorty, Prigogine, Foucault, Derrida
among others), legitimizing with its theories pluralism, the understanding of the multi-meaning nature of truth, the polyphony
of cultures, and the significance of all minorities for the spiritual development of humankind. On the basis of selected examples
from the literatures of West-, East- and South-Slavic countries, the author attempts to identify the crucial elements of transformation
of the social and literary self-awareness of different generations in the post-communist Slavic countries over the last fifteen
years. In the works of J. Topol, V. Pelevin, T. Rżewicz, D. Ugresić, T. Zabuzhko, or D. Bieńkowski she seeks an answer to
the question what was realized out of various dreams of a better and braver world of pluralism and democracy. How do the transformationers,
the transformed and the self-transforming “inhabitants” of the new reality recognize their social and ethical situation? Who
are, in light of literature, the heroes of our time, and what is behind the notion of “new sensitivity”? What does the so-called
“realcap” (real capitalism) mean in literature? And also, which spaces of freedom does the democratic system open for writers
and minorities, and which new worlds of imagination does it create in a search for metaphysical, mythical, thanatological,
religious and esoteric dimensions of human existence, constrained in the past by imposed, top-down atheism.
The Rusyn language in Slovakia was codified in 1995 on the basis of the country’s two most prevalent Rusyn dialects: East Zemplín and West Zemplín. From this perspective Rusyn is a relatively young Slavic language, and this despite its centuries-long history, which is marked by many conflicts concerning the question of a literary norm; the disputes concerning Rusyn have taken place on the territory of today’s Slovak Republic, as well as throughout all of historical Carpathian Rus. Any solutions concerning a Rusyn literary language were always connected to the question of the Rusyn minority’s ethnic identity [i.e. are they (Great) Russian, Ukrainian, or do they form a separate Slavic nationality?], and these issues were not possible to resolve until after 1989, when society began to enjoy new pluralistic conditions. Thus, the late twentieth-century codification of Rusyn on the basis of local dialects was the natural result of an expression of free will on the part of Rusyns, and a response to the dilemma of their ethnic identity. The codification of Rusyn became the basis for introducing the literary language into various public spheres in Slovakia – publishing and media, religious life, stage and theatre productions, and of course the literary world –, which had until 1995 used various forms of Rusyn dialects without applying standardized rules. The expansion of Rusyn into these spheres of life – especially into the educational system and government administration – required the existence of a standardized literary language. Thus, the implementation of literary Rusyn (in its written and spoken form) into the above-named spheres of life is an important step to guaranteeing the language’s further development.