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Abstract  

The topic of the present work is to study the thermal behavior of phenitoine and pharmaceuticals by means of kinetic parameters determined in non-isothermal conditions. The TG/DTG data were obtained at four heating rates. These data were processed by the following methods: Friedman (FR), Budrugeac-Segal (BS) and the modified non-parametric kinetics (Sempere-Nomen). The main conclusions of the kinetic study are The FR method is versatile, but the values of the kinetic parameters are not certain, especially by multistep processes. The BS method offer a non-variant part of the activation energy, but the kinetic description is only formal. The NPK method is able to discriminate between two or more steps of a complex process. In our case, there are a preponderant process (more than 70% of the explained variance). By the NPK method there is a non-speculative separation of the temperature, respective conversion degree dependence of the reaction rate.

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Abstract  

A comparative kinetic analysis on the thermal decomposition of tartaric acid and potassium tartrate under non-isothermal conditions was performed. The non-isothermal kinetic parameters were determined by the following four methods: integral isoconversional method suggested by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO method); differential isoconversional method suggested by Friedman; Budrugeac-Segal method and Non-Parametric-Kinetic (NKP) method suggested by Sempere and Nomen and modified by Vlase and Doca. The comparison of the results obtaining by these methods leads to interesting conclusions. The experimental data were obtained in dynamic nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates of 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 K min−1. The less speculative kinetic analysis was possible by the NPK method.

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Summary The thermal behavior of KH2PO4, NaH2PO4 and Na2HPO4 under non-isothermal conditions using TG method with different heating rates was studied. The values of the reaction rate were processed by means of Friedman’s differential-isoconversional method. A dependence of the activation energy vs. conversion was observed. Therefore a procedure based on the compensation effect (suggested by Budrugeac and Segal) was applied. A less speculative data processing protocol was offered by the non-parametric kinetics method suggested by Serra, Nomen and Sempere. Three steps were observed by non-isothermal heating: a dehydration, a dimerization and a polycondensation. The differences in the intimate reaction mechanism are determined by the initial number of water molecules.

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Abstract  

The thermo-oxidative degradation of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been investigated by TG+DTG+DTA simultaneous analysis performed in static air atmosphere, at four heating rates, namely 3, 5, 10 and 15 K min−1. TG, DTG and DTA curves showed that, in the temperature range 25–700°C, four successive processes occur. The first process consisting in the loss of physical adsorbed water is followed by three processes of thermal and/or thermo-oxidative degradations. The processing of the non-isothermal data corresponding to the second process (the first process of thermo-oxidation) was performed by using Netzsch Thermokinetics — A Software Module for Kinetic Analysis. The dependence of the activation energy evaluated by Friedman’s isoconversional method on the conversion degree shows that the investigated process is complex one. The mechanism of this process and the corresponding kinetic parameters were determined by Multivariate Non-linear Regression Program and checked for quasi-isothermal experimental data. It was pointed out that the first process of thermo-oxidation of PVA consists in three consecutive steps having Avrami-Erofeev kinetic model. The obtained results can be used for prediction of the thermal lifetime of PVA corresponding to a certain temperature of use and an endpoint criterion.

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Abstract  

A model describing the roles of bound and unbound vacancies is proposed in order to predict defect decay and short-range-order kinetics of quenched binary alloys during linear heating experiments. This is an alternative treatment of a previous approach. The model has been applied to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves of Cu-5 at.% Zn quenched from different temperatures. An expression to calculate the activation energy for migration of solute-vacancy complexes was also developed which make use of DSC trace data. A value of 89.120.32 kJ mol-1 was obtained for the above alloy. The relative contribution of bound and unbound vacancies to partition of effective activation energy corresponding to the ordering process as influenced by quenching temperature was also assessed.

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Abstract  

A differential method is proposed which uses local heating rates to evaluate non-isothermal kinetic parameters. The method allows to study the influence of the deviation of the true heating rate with respect to the programmed one on the values of the kinetic parameters. For application, the kinetic parameters of the following solid-gas decomposition reaction were evaluated: [Ni(NH3)6]Br2(s)→[Ni(NH3)2]Br2(s)+4NH3(g). The results obtained revealed significant differences between the values of the non-isothermal kinetic parameters obtained by using local heating rates and those obtained by using the programmed heating rate. It was also demonstrated that the kinetic equation which makes use of the local heating rates permits a better description of the experimental (α, t) data than the kinetic equation which uses the programmed constant heating rate.

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Abstract

A nonlinear algorithm has been suggested to increase the accuracy of evaluating the activation energy by the integral isoconversional method. A minor modification of the algorithm has made it possible to adapt the isoconversional method for an arbitrary variation of the temperature. This advanced isoconversional method allows for trustworthy estimates of the activation energy when the thermal effect of a reaction makes the temperature of a sample deviate from a prescribed heating program.

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Abstract  

The adsorption of n -butane on extruded cylindrical activated carbon grains is studied providing two kinds of information: the influence of the temperature and the hydrocarbon partial pressure on the adsorption dynamics (kinetic study) and on the adsorption capacities (thermodynamic study). The thermodynamic aspect could be interpreted by a Langmuir model. From a kinetic point of view, we have experimentally proved that strong temperature variations occur inside the particles during the adsorption. In this paper, a kinetic model including both mass and heat transfer phenomena is proposed. Good agreement is found between the kinetic model predictions and the experimental mass and temperature variations inside the grain during the hydrocarbon adsorption.

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Steps in a minefield

Some kinetic aspects of thermal analysis

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Author: M. Brown

Abstract  

This paper is a review of some of the controversial kinetic aspects of thermal analysis, starting from the ‘šesták questions’ posed in 1979 and looking at developments in some areas since that time. Aspects considered include: temperature programmes and variations, models and mechanisms, kinetic parameters, distinguishability and extent of fit of kinetic models, complementary evidence for kinetic models, the Arrhenius equation and the compensation effect. The value of the ideas of non-isothermal kinetics in chemical education is emphasized.

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A calculation technique based on the SVD algorithm is suggested for solving non-isothermal kinetics problems. The uncertainties in the sought parameter values are obtained by superimposing random (Gauss) noise on experimental dependences.

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