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Abstract  

The thermal analysis methods (TG, DTG and DTA) were used for the investigation of the thermal degradation of some recent manufactured tanned leathers, leathers that are supports of cultural or historical objects (leather from book covers (XVII-XIX centuries); leather from an Austrian belt (Franz Joseph period), Cordoba leather (XVII century), lining leathers), recent and patrimonial parchments and recent extracted collagen (sorts of collagen obtained from bovine leather at different pH-values, bovine collagen with different hydration degree). At progressive heating, all investigated materials exhibit two main successive processes, associated with the dehydration and thermo-oxidative degradation. Each analyzed material has a characteristic thermal analysis curve (TG, DTG and DTA) that can be considered a material 'fingerprint'. This result suggests the use of the thermal analysis methods to identify of leathers from which the patrimonial objects are manufactured. The rate of thermo-oxidation of recent manufactured tanned leathers is substantially higher than the rate of the same process corresponding to naturally aged leathers that exhibit values of the thermo-oxidation rate appropriate to those obtained for parchments and collagens. The rate of thermo-oxidation of leather can thus be used as a criterion to distinguish between recent manufactured leather and patrimonial one.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
H. Tan
,
S. Mitra
,
L. Wielopolski
,
A. Fallu-Labruyere
,
W. Hennig
,
Y. Chu
, and
W. Warburton

Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) systems that use pulsed neutron generators (NGs) employ spectrum gating procedures to segregate nuclear processes by acquiring gamma-ray spectra separately when the generator is on (HIGH gate) and off (LOW gate). Often, the actual neutron burst lags the leading edge of the HIGH gate signal by a few μs. Thus, count rates vary not only between the on and off states of the NG, but within them as well. Recent advances in digital gamma-ray spectrometers that allowed the concurrent acquisition of data by sorting events into two separate spectra based on gate status suggested that a time-resolved analysis that further subdivided the neutron pulse cycle could obtain further information to separate gamma-rays produced by different nuclear reactions. In this paper we introduce a gating system for time-resolved NAA that is capable of concurrently acquiring as many as 16 spectra from up to 8 user-defined time intervals during each of the HIGH gate and LOW gate periods, each with all required timing and count rate information. We present the new gating system’s implementation, operation and some first experimental test results.

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Abstract  

Predicting indoor radon potential has gained in importance even asthe national radon programs began to wane. A cooperative study to produceradon potential maps was conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Energy (DOE), and LawrenceBerkeley Laboratory (LBL) with the latter taking the lead role. They developeda county-wide predictive model based dominantly on the National Uranium ResourceEvaluation (NURE) aerorad data and secondly on geology, both small-scale databases. However, that model breaks down in counties of complex geology anddoes not provide a means to evaluate the potential of an individual home orbuilding site. In this current study, soil-gas radon measurements on a largescale are shown to provide information for estimating radon potential at individualsites sort out the complex geology so that the small-scale prediction indexcan be validated. An example from Frederick County, Maryland indicates a positivecorrelation between indoor measurements and soil-gas data. The method doesnot rely on a single measurement, but a series that incorporate seasonal andmeteorological considerations.

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Abstract  

Each country, each nation has its own map of world literature in any given historical period. The construction of the map largely depends on translators and their literary translations. No doubt, academic works on the history of world literature written or translated by scholars from target countries have made equally remarkable contributions. But in most cases the weight of those contributions is particularly felt by readers who take up foreign literary studies as profession, especially in China. To general readers, it is through the strenuous efforts the translators have made that they have acquired that very map they desired for. This essay aims to reveal the different maps in the eye of the Chinese readers in different historical periods and their constructions through our endeavor to sort out and describe relevant facts gleaned from a hundred-odd period since the end of the Qing Dynasty to the beginning of the People’s Republic of China. Meanwhile, the essay also attempts to show the functions and influence the translators and their activities perform and exert through relatively meticulous analyses of the relevant facts.

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Abstract  

In the present era of globalization, discussing the relations between man and nature as well as the environment has become a cutting-edge theoretical topic for almost all humanities scholars. In this respect, the rise of eco-criticism in the English-speaking world takes the initiative of intervening from a literary critical perspective. Partly due to introduction and translation from the West, and partly from China’s own ecological resources, eco-criticism has also risen in China and quickly flourished. Actually, the relation between man and nature has long been a theme not only in Western literature but also in Chinese literature, and Tao Yuanming’s creation of the “Peach Blossom Spring” as a Chinese version of Utopia serves as a particularly notable example. The present article, after some critical review and reflection of the positive aspects of eco-criticism, tries to deconstruct from a postmodern eco-critical perspective the exclusiveness of the “people-oriented” ethics dominated in current Chinese ideology, and at the same time, questions the nature-earth-centric mode of thinking advocated by the eco-critics. To the author, it is necessary to construct a sort of postmodern environmental ethics characterized by harmoniousness with differences reserved in the present era rather than raise another binary opposition between man and nature.

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Abstract  

This article takes the case of the Italian author Dino Buzzati who, parallel to his literary oeuvre best known for its fantastic qualities, spent forty years from 1928 to 1972 as a journalist and columnist for Corriere della sera, practising every conceivable sub-genre of journalism and becoming a sort of 'directeur occulte' of the paper. Focusing on Cronache terrestri, the selection of Buzzati's articles published posthumously, my analysis explores the borderline between literature and journalism in Buzzati's work for Corriere, singling out for particular attention the intersection between specific journalistic techniques (in particular his 'leads' and his titles) and his recourse to the 'fantastic' in the treatment of topical themes and contemporary events (including war reportage). Buzzati's 'borderline', I argue, can be posited as an 'in between-area' between literature and journalism, reality and fantasy, where the signature of Buzzati, as correspondent for an authoritative Italian daily, validates the existence of (apparently) 'impossible' worlds, and where his accumulation of reportorial details and enumerations create fictions of (hyper) reality and the conditions necessary to the 'hesitation' that Todorov ascribes to the fantastic mode.

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Abstract  

The interweaving of three different sorts of software based on different algorithms (co-world analysis and downward hierarchical classification) and applied on a file (in the field of risk assessment through the introduction of transgenic plants) extracted from the CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau) data base, has enable us to provide three types of results: Leximappe provides a synthetic image from clusters of key-words. The main themes were identified. Alceste improves a corpus' characterization and allows a logical reading of it, thanks to the creation of categories, along with their mutual dependencies, the peculiar, meaning of each and their division in time. Moreover, Alceste allows us to perceive the contexts of the contents previously identified under Leximappe. Sampler allows us to go into the details of the terms association in graphical form and detail the specific orientations of the corpus, especially with the inscription of weak signals. Finally, this software, applied from the categories drawn from Alceste, offers for each category a meaningful graphic representation. We can argue that the different ways of measuring and presenting results are complementary since they highlight different aspects of risk assessment carried by different actors, as it is underlined in social science studies of public controversy. Moreover we can follow these actors through the categories and clusters (socioeconomic, scientific and risk assessment linked to regulation and policy) which are more and more differenciated in time. This methodology allows the study of emerging processes in the social construction of issues within controversies.

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Nimbusz és identitás. Az IPARTERV tevékenységének recepciója a korai Kádár-korszakban

Nimbus and identity reception of the iparterv activity in the early Kádár age

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Péter Haba

The imposition of socialist realism caused great loss of prestige and intellectual confusion in Hungarian architecture. After 1956, in the first years of the Kádár era it was preoccupied by a sort of “self-rehabilitation” and by the related aim of reviving Hungarian modernism. In this period of search the new architectural phenomena in industrial investments attracting the attention of designers and architecture theoreticians active in other areas of architecture assumed special significance.

Under the industrializing programs central to the party propaganda, there was clear-cut political intention for a long time to build materially and technically good-quality, well-designed, monumental industrial building complexes. Architectural creativity received a great boost from the efforts to create structural systems in view of the western engineering innovations and tendencies of form, adapted flexibly to the specificities of the industrializing program launched in the late 1950s, to the new technological systems and the transforming conditions of the building industry and economy.

It is not accidental therefore that a certain nimbus evolved soon around the central institution of the field, the Industrial Building Design Company (IPARTERV): the company gradually became a special creative workshop, and industrial architectural planning became a booming branch of the economy. The reception of the IPARTERV activity in the early Kádár era was dominated by the emergence of this nimbus. The aim of the paper is to explore the decisive architectural and engineering approaches, personal and collective planning roles, architectural theoretical tendencies and political factors that shaped the specific role of this company.

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It has been generally recognised that the extremely important philosophical sūtras, most of them the oldest surviving texts of Indian philosophical schools, contain some interpolated material. In this paper the suggestion is put forward that their compositeness is of a far more fundamental nature, i.e. during the period of their formation — that could be half a millennium — they were not texts proper but memory aids for students. They must have been something like our handouts (but purely oral at the beginning), with different additions, deletions and interpretations in different places and times, without any fixed order or set number of contributors. The edited form of these texts that has come down to us derives from a late collector-editor who most probably wrote some sort of commentary as well on the sūtras. This unusual textual history suggests that we cannot really speak about the authors, the time of their writing or even their relative priority. Moreover, often there is no point in speaking about the true meaning of a given sentence or paragraph, as it may have had several ones in different historical contexts, and there is no available standard to establish which interpretation is more fundamental or original.

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Summary

This chapter aims to reconsider an inscription from Consilinum (3rd century CE), in which we find the problematic mention of a mundus Attinis. This inscription has been almost neglected by scholars: it has been analyzed in a systematic way only in an article in Latin language back in 1978. It is not easy to explain what mundus exactly represented to the ancient Romans, but we can assert for sure that it was a holy place in connection with the worship of the gods of the underworld. The connection between Cybele, Attis, and the underworld is well known, but this is the only mention we have of a mundus Attinis i.e. Attidis. It might be connected to the (mystic?) rites in honor of the dead Attis, symbolized by a pine, who, during the Hilaria, was carried in an underground chamber for lamentations, before his new life. In my opinion, we might also think of the mundus as a sort of reversed womb, related to the figure of the Magna Mater, in which birth and death come together and overlap.

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