The trace elements content of Cola acuminata and three varieties of Cola nitida have been determined using neutron activation analysis. The samples have been irradiated at the Joint Universities Research Reactor, Risley, England for 71/2 hours in a neutron flux of 2.5·1012 n·cm–2s–1 and analysed using high resolution lithium drifted germanium detector coupled to a Canberra 35 microprocessor as a 4096 channel gamma spectrometer. The elements: Na, K, Br, W, Fe, Cs, Co, Zn, and Sc were detected.
Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (aluminium, calcium, chlorine, manganese, sodium and strontium) have been determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Unlike graphite furnace atomic absorption, neutron activation requires essentially no treatment of the gum sample prior to analysis. As a result, most of these elements may be quantitated in only a few minutes. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure 17 elements in 2 families of leaves of tropical plants. The concentrations of most of the trace elements measured, especially toxic elements like As, Br, Cr, Hg, Sb and Zn, were found to correlate well with the polluted nature of the locations where the trees were grown and also with the age of the plants. It was observed that the trees used in this study could be used as bioindicators for the pollution state of the surrounding environment.
The determination of 14 trace elements /Ba, Ce, Co, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb and Th/ has been carried out in three different brands of Brazilian cigarettes. The samples and standards were irradiated for 8 h at a thermal neutron flux of approx. 5×1012 n cm–2s–1. After the irradiation, the -rays activity was measured on a Ge/Li/ detector coupled with a 4096-channel pulse height analyzer. The results were compared with those obtained for the tobacco from American, Iranian, Turkish, Pakistan and Yugoslavian cigarettes. The amount of each element transferred to the ashes was determined.
Authors:D.M.B. Coccaro, M. Saiki, M.B.A. Vasconcellos, and M.P. Marcelli
Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied for the determination of trace elements in five epiphytic lichens: Canoparmelia texana, Canoparmelia caroliniana, Parmotrema tinctorum, Parmotrema sancti-angeli and Usmea sp. that were collected at the same sampling area of the Botanic Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. The elemental concentration results showed that these five lichens can be chosen in the species intercalibration for biomonitoring studies. Also, some aspects related to the occurrence, tolerance to pollution, treatment and ease of sampling of the species are presented.
Authors:K. Lee, M. Yang, Y. Yoon, S. Shim, S. Cho, B. Seo, Y. Chung, and J. Lee
Most elemental concentrations in crops should be related to those in soil and other circumferential environments. In the present study, more than thirty minor and trace elements in soils and crops were determined by the use of ICP, XRF and NAA. Soil and crop samples were collected at eleven abandoned mine regions in Chungnam province located in the middle part of Korea. The elemental concentrations in soils were compared to the crustal mean concentrations in both Chungnam area and worldwide. The concentration ratios of the elements in soils and crop compartments were calculated and the distribution characteristics of each element were investigated between soil and crop compartments.
Authors:S. Kojima, T. Saito, J. Takada, M. Furukawa, H. Oda, T. Nakamura, and K. Yokota
Concentrations of eighteen trace elements at the sediment-water interface in Biwa Lake were determined by neutron activation analysis. Release of iron, manganese and arsenic from the sediment to the pore water was observed under anoxic conditions. The concentrations of Sb in the pore water as well as Na were nearly constant between the surface and the depth of 40 cm. The behavior of Sb differed from that of As at the sediment-water interface, since the partition coefficient of Sb differed from that of As.
Authors:M. Saiki, E. Alves, O. Jaluul, N. Sumita, and W. Filho
Neutron activation analysis was applied to assess trace elements concentrations in head hair from healthy elderly people living
in the São Paulo metropolitan area. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Se and, Zn were determined.
Comparisons were made between the results obtained for dyed and non-dyed hair as well as for hair from females and males of
two different age groups. The results were also compared with range values established by clinical laboratories and published
Authors:G. Bigazzi, S. Meloni, M. Oddone, and G. Radi
Iron and trace elements, such as rare-earth elements, scandium, rubidium, cesium, tantalum, thorium and uranium were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in geological samples of obsidian rocks from the Mediterranean Area and in obsidian artifacts found in some prehistorical human settlements in Italy. REE patterns and discriminant analysis allow a firm identification of the source material of artifacts, thus confirming and implementing fission track data of the same artifacts and rocks on the origin of the obsidian rock used to mould the artifacts.
Authors:S. Abdul Sattar, B. Seetharami Reddy, V. Koteswara Rao, A. Pradeep, G. Naga Raju, K. Ramanarayana, P. Madhusudana Rao, and S. Bhuloka Reddy
Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of 10 anti-epileptic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV
proton beam was used to excite the samples and spectra were recorded using a Si(Li) detector. Data analysis was done using
Gupix Software. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr were identified and their concentrations estimated.
The presence of some of these trace elements is correlated with the anti-epileptic curative property of these plants.