Both demonology and medical learning wanted to define what material proofs they were to use in order to alleviate the politically rooted disease symptoms of the early modern period. Finding the proper therapeutic treatment required the appropriate description of the pathology, revealing the causes and consequences and making the right diagnosis. Several key questions were formulated concerning these requirements. Most of the questions formulated in this way are based on a formal syllogism that meets the normative requirements of disciplines that include law, theology and medicine and whose formal elements became valid within the systems of fulfilment of these disciplines themselves. In this paper I shall attempt to introduce the scholarly literature based on these formal logical criteria that address material proofs, omens, prophecies, oracles and miracles. I shall then outline how this debate in European secondary literature has been received in Hungarian scholarship.
In addition to several thousand archaeological features, forty-three settlement burials were also uncovered on the LBK site at Balatonszárszó-Kis-erdei-dűlő. The majority of the crouched inhumation burials came to light from the uppermost level of the settlement’s refuse pits. The study offers a detailed assessment of the settlement’s Neolithic burials together with the examination of possible patterns in the mortuary rites, as well as an overview of the culture’s graves and mortuary practices in the western half of the Carpathian Basin, i.e. in Hungary and Slovakia. The findings are compared to the treatment of the dead in other regions of the LBK distribution in Europe in order to identify possible local traditions in the light of similarities with and divergences from the general patterns in the mortuary rites practiced by LBK communities.
How far can canon and language be sources of (dis)continuity in literary history? Continuity and discontinuity are concepts of such complexity that only philosophers can hope to make a successful attempt to define them in general terms. All I can offer is a tentative analysis of their significance for literary history. Since even such an investigation would ask for a lengthy treatment if conducted on an abstract level, I shall limit myself to reflections on how continuity and discontinuity are related to the concepts of canon and language. In the second half of my paper a personified abstraction called nation will also be introduced with the intention of making some remarks on the legitimacy of the terms national and world literature. The essay also raises the question of whether it is possible to write literary history in a postmodern world.
This article focusses on discussing the reason of existence of factors (
) in the three time periods (
) as it is recorded in the Vaibhāṣika *
and in the Sarvāstivāda works that postdate this text. The origin of this discussion is traced back in the earliest Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma works. Also the Chinese Sanlun philosopher Jizang (549–623), in his “
Shi’er men lun shu
”, a commentary on Nāgārjuna’s *
Shi’er men lun
”, raises this discussion. Here, references are made to the vibhāṣā literature. The treatment of the subject in the “
Shi’er men lun shu
” reveals (1) that the Chinese Sanlun (and Madhyamaka) philosophers were familiar with this discussion in Sarvāstivāda philosophy; (2) that they criticised the Sarvāstivāda viewpoint; and (3) gives evidence for a rise of Indian Madhyamaka philosophy and a place of origin of Nāgārjuna in the North of the Indian subcontinent.
In 1913 Béla Bartók traveled to Algeria to research Arab folk music. He took with him the most modern technological device then available, the Edison phonograph, and recorded Arab peasants performing their music. Analysis of his ensuing scholarly documentation and free composition reveals the inspiration Bartók drew from Arab folk music, not only in his treatment of traditional musical elements — melody, rhythm, and harmony — but also in novel incorporation of exotic timbre, scales, drum modes, ululation, and exorcism. This paper elucidates diverse musical elements with examples from authentic folk music and Bartók’s compositions. What emerges is a remarkably comprehensive image of Arab music, seen through the lens of Béla Bartók’s unique scholarship and creativity.
Ponori Thewrewk Emil, akit a magyar klasszika-filológia első nagy alakjának és megalapítójának tekintünk, egyúttal az egyetlen olyan magyar tudós is, aki foglalkozott az ókori görögök állatvédelmével. A téma iránti érdeklődése azzal a hatással magyarázható, amelyet szellemi környezete gyakorolt rá, közeli rokonságára és ismerőseire. A kor állatvédő mozgalmainak érvelése, amely az a minore ad maius elvén alapszik („aki kíméletlen az állatokkal, az kíméletlen lesz az emberekkel is”), megragadható Ponori Thewrewk rövid cikkében, amely különbséget tesz az állati élet megkíméléséhez vezető, régi vallásos hiedelmek és azon törvényes athéni esetek között, amelyekben az állatokkal szembeni kegyetlenséget megbüntették mint az emberekkel szembeni, jövőbeni kegyetlenség előjelét. Tanulmányom első felében (I–II. rész) megkísérlem feltárni Ponori Thewrewk személyes indíttatását és kapcsolatait, amelyek a kor állatvédő mozgalmaihoz fűzték, majd a III. részben sorra veszem azokat a Ponori Thewrewk által említett, ókori vallásos és törvényi megfontolásokat, amelyek az állatokkal való kíméletes bánásmódhoz vezettek, hogy teljes képet nyerjünk az ókori görögök állatvédelmi törekvéseiről és arról, ahogyan ezt Ponori Thewrewk és kortársai látták.
A number of authors have claimed that Potebnja's linguistic theory contains evident traces of Kantian influences. In the field of epistemology, indeed, both Potebnja and Kant were convinced relativists, and a number of philosophical notions commonly associated with Kant's doctrine are easily found in Potebnja's works. On the other hand, direct references to Kant are extremely rare in Potebnja's writings. In fact, according to Potebnia, the central problem of linguistics and philosophy was that of interrelation between language and thought, which had been practically ignored by Kant. A possible approach to the question of Potebnja's supposed Kantianism implies the existence of intermediary sources instrumental in conveying some Kantian elements into Potebnja's own theory (Humboldt, Herbart, Steinthal, etc.). Indeed, some scholars tend to regard the whole philosophy of language of German Romanticism and its psychologically-tinged positivist continuation as a sort of response to the problems left unresolved by Kant.Potebnjadid receive some important stimuli this way, although they rather concerned the formulation of the problems than their solution. The main points of Potebnja's discord with Kant concern the existence of a priori mental contents, the role of language in the transformation of sensorial data into concepts, the (non-)arbitrariness of the linguistic sign, the nature of linguistic communication, etc. Potebnja's treatment of the distinction between synthetic and analytic judgments, as well as of their function in the formation of concepts, where Kantian echoes are particularly evident, offers a particularly good example of the wide theoretical distance separating both authors.
Deconstructing the diverse meaning behind the common metaphor “Little America”, this paper explores widely disparate ethnic identity conceptions and inter-ethnic relations in two regions of Transylvania, showing them as dependent on the ways in which each region was integrated into changing patterns of global labor. Regional ethnic identity and relations in the Jiu Valley coal producing region and in the mixed agro-industrial Fǎgǎraş zone vary greatly. In the former, ethnic identity was downplayed and inter-ethnic relations always kept on an even keel owing to the particular process of regional settlement and the common integration of the region’s ethnic groups into the hard coal industry that dominated the Valley from the middle of the 18th century. In the latter region, ethnic relations were frequently tense due to a highly discrete ethnic-based division of labor and organization of political hierarchy. Despite these differences, citizens of each region expressed their ethnic dynamic through use of the “Little America” metaphor. However, in the Jiu Valley this referred to alleged ethnic peace of cooperating national groups, while in Fǎgǎraş this notion referred to the dream of struggling for social mobility and differentiation. The paper thus shows how such basic ethnic conceptions, shaped by the treatment of regional labor in successive phases of the global economy, influence a wide range of differing attitudes toward diverse social and political processes, including socialist development policies and the modern global labor market.
The oldest textual variant of the Russian religious folk song “Forty pilgrims and one more pilgrim” dates from the mid-eighteenth century. The song is a special type of apology, produced by pilgrims for their own laudation and glorification, with the intention to raise the respect of people for them. The wife of the Grand Prince of Kiev wanted to commit adultery with the spiritual leader of the pilgrims, for which God punished her with a severe disease, most probably with leper. The symptoms of the wife’s disease and the circumstances of her recovery indicate that the pneuma-theory, the most ancient concept of the origin of diseases, was familiar to the Russians. In connection to the religious songs analyzed in my paper I found medical practices similar to those in Hungarian folk culture and in the ancient medicine of the Lamaist Tibet. On the basis of this, it can be claimed that the disease of the wife of the Grand Prince was caused by some internal or external “evil wind”. Consequently, the treatment was connected to the wind as well.
The author of this paper analyzes the inner world of certain Puškin's poems (motifs, topoi, characters) taking Byron's influence and the poet's reflections on history into consideration. Puškin inherited the structure of genre, the literary character of rebellious hero and the other "obligatory" elements of romantic epical poem (exotic surroundings, nocturnal scenes, extreme emotions etc.) from Byron. A closer influence of the English pattern can be observed only in the early poems of Puškin (The Prisoner of the Caucasus, The Fountain at Bakhchisarai). But the tricks, motifs and necessary "accessories" he employs become the vehicles of increasingly meaningful thoughts which allow the genre to rise to such a level that it could keep its canonised place in the Russian literature even after the vanishing of romanticism. From the mid-1820s the historic events of the period, the repression of the Dekabrist uprising and also the new direction in Puškin's interest are reflected in his works. Among them the epical poem Poltava is considered by the experts the example of overcoming Byron's previous influence. What is followed in this paper is the treatment of the different tragic connections between power and individual by Puškin.