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The article deals with the role of the Greek goddess Hera and her Roman counterpart, Iuno, in the poetic treatments of the myth of Argonauts. The focus is put especially on Iuno’s character development in Valerius Flaccus’ adaptation of the myth. Iuno’s character in this work has already been discussed by Werner Schubert in his fundamental study (1991), in which he pointed out the remarkable approximation of Iuno fabulosa and Iuno civilis. Referring to this study, the article emphasizes rather the literary development of Iuno’s character. It is shown that Valerius Flaccus portrays the highest goddess not only as a peculiar helper (socia), as suggested by Schubert, but also as a permanent participant in an intertextual dialogue with the epic poems of Homer and Apollonius Rhodius. Valerius Flaccus’ aim here is to invert his literary predecessors’ accounts in a subtle and witted way (as Debra Hershkowitz has already presented).

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In addition to several thousand archaeological features, forty-three settlement burials were also uncovered on the LBK site at Balatonszárszó-Kis-erdei-dűlő. The majority of the crouched inhumation burials came to light from the uppermost level of the settlement’s refuse pits. The study offers a detailed assessment of the settlement’s Neolithic burials together with the examination of possible patterns in the mortuary rites, as well as an overview of the culture’s graves and mortuary practices in the western half of the Carpathian Basin, i.e. in Hungary and Slovakia. The findings are compared to the treatment of the dead in other regions of the LBK distribution in Europe in order to identify possible local traditions in the light of similarities with and divergences from the general patterns in the mortuary rites practiced by LBK communities.

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Ennek a dolgozatnak a tárgya a morfológia, illetve szótan ókori grammatikákban megmutatkozó felfogása, melyet kétféle összefüggésben helyezünk el: egyrészt a morfológia mai modelljeinek tipológiájában, másfelől pedig azok tudománytörténeti alakulásában. Áttekintjük, hogy milyen érvek szólnak a mai nyelvelméletben az ókori típusú, szigorú értelemben morfológia nélküli szótan mellett. Szólunk arról is, hogy hogyan bontakozott ki a morfológiai szerkezet egyre pontosabb felismerése a magyar nyelv régi, latin alapú grammatikáiban a 16–17. század folyamán.

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Ponori Thewrewk Emil, akit a magyar klasszika-filológia első nagy alakjának és megalapítójának tekintünk, egyúttal az egyetlen olyan magyar tudós is, aki foglalkozott az ókori görögök állatvédelmével. A téma iránti érdeklődése azzal a hatással magyarázható, amelyet szellemi környezete gyakorolt rá, közeli rokonságára és ismerőseire. A kor állatvédő mozgalmainak érvelése, amely az a minore ad maius elvén alapszik („aki kíméletlen az állatokkal, az kíméletlen lesz az emberekkel is”), megragadható Ponori Thewrewk rövid cikkében, amely különbséget tesz az állati élet megkíméléséhez vezető, régi vallásos hiedelmek és azon törvényes athéni esetek között, amelyekben az állatokkal szembeni kegyetlenséget megbüntették mint az emberekkel szembeni, jövőbeni kegyetlenség előjelét. Tanulmányom első felében (I–II. rész) megkísérlem feltárni Ponori Thewrewk személyes indíttatását és kapcsolatait, amelyek a kor állatvédő mozgalmaihoz fűzték, majd a III. részben sorra veszem azokat a Ponori Thewrewk által említett, ókori vallásos és törvényi megfontolásokat, amelyek az állatokkal való kíméletes bánásmódhoz vezettek, hogy teljes képet nyerjünk az ókori görögök állatvédelmi törekvéseiről és arról, ahogyan ezt Ponori Thewrewk és kortársai látták.

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A number of authors have claimed that Potebnja's linguistic theory contains evident traces of Kantian influences. In the field of epistemology, indeed, both Potebnja and Kant were convinced relativists, and a number of philosophical notions commonly associated with Kant's doctrine are easily found in Potebnja's works. On the other hand, direct references to Kant are extremely rare in Potebnja's writings. In fact, according to Potebnia, the central problem of linguistics and philosophy was that of interrelation between language and thought, which had been practically ignored by Kant. A possible approach to the question of Potebnja's supposed Kantianism implies the existence of intermediary sources instrumental in conveying some Kantian elements into Potebnja's own theory (Humboldt, Herbart, Steinthal, etc.). Indeed, some scholars tend to regard the whole philosophy of language of German Roman­ticism and its psychologically-tinged positivist continuation as a sort of response to the problems left unresolved by Kant.Potebnjadid receive some important stimuli this way, although they rather concerned the formulation of the problems than their solution. The main points of Potebnja's discord with Kant concern the existence of a priori mental contents, the role of language in the transformation of sensorial data into concepts, the (non-)arbitrariness of the linguistic sign, the nature of linguistic communication, etc. Potebnja's treatment of the distinction between synthetic and analytic judgments, as well as of their function in the formation of concepts, where Kantian echoes are particularly evident, offers a particularly good example of the wide theoretical distance separating both authors.

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Deconstructing the diverse meaning behind the common metaphor “Little America”, this paper explores widely disparate ethnic identity conceptions and inter-ethnic relations in two regions of Transylvania, showing them as dependent on the ways in which each region was integrated into changing patterns of global labor. Regional ethnic identity and relations in the Jiu Valley coal producing region and in the mixed agro-industrial Fǎgǎraş zone vary greatly. In the former, ethnic identity was downplayed and inter-ethnic relations always kept on an even keel owing to the particular process of regional settlement and the common integration of the region’s ethnic groups into the hard coal industry that dominated the Valley from the middle of the 18th century. In the latter region, ethnic relations were frequently tense due to a highly discrete ethnic-based division of labor and organization of political hierarchy. Despite these differences, citizens of each region expressed their ethnic dynamic through use of the “Little America” metaphor. However, in the Jiu Valley this referred to alleged ethnic peace of cooperating national groups, while in Fǎgǎraş this notion referred to the dream of struggling for social mobility and differentiation. The paper thus shows how such basic ethnic conceptions, shaped by the treatment of regional labor in successive phases of the global economy, influence a wide range of differing attitudes toward diverse social and political processes, including socialist development policies and the modern global labor market.

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General systems theory is a scientific discipline that adopts a different approach to that of reductionist science, based on systems, connections and processes. The emerging new field of human ecology, which attempts to reconcile natural systems with human-made systems, draws boldly on this wealth of knowledge. One of the methods of facing the challenges of the worldwide ecological crisis is the implementation of the resulting principles of sustainable development at the rural development level. In south-west Hungary, the sparsely populated small village region of Zselic is home to a small-scale sustainable settlement development project in the abandoned former village of Gyűrűfű. Over the past fifteen years, principles of ecological design, such as permaculture, dominated the re-settlement of the area by a small number of ecologically conscious city dwellers-turned-villagers. Ecological landscape assessment of the site preceded the actual design of the project, providing the grounds for proper siting and implementation methods of the various facilities. Alternative solutions were applied to the functions of building construction, building engineering, water management, agriculture, sewage treatment, waste management and gardening, and a community-based social structure to strengthen ecological values. The project survived in spite of the dramatically changing political and economic environment.

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The author of this paper analyzes the inner world of certain Puškin's poems (motifs, topoi, characters) taking Byron's influence and the poet's reflections on history into consideration. Puškin inherited the structure of genre, the literary character of rebellious hero and the other "obligatory" elements of romantic epical poem (exotic surroundings, nocturnal scenes, extreme emotions etc.) from Byron. A closer influence of the English pattern can be observed only in the early poems of Puškin (The Prisoner of the Caucasus, The Fountain at Bakhchisarai). But the tricks, motifs and necessary "accessories" he employs become the vehicles of increasingly meaningful thoughts which allow the genre to rise to such a level that it could keep its canonised place in the Russian literature even after the vanishing of romanticism. From the mid-1820s the historic events of the period, the repression of the Dekabrist uprising and also the new direction in Puškin's interest are reflected in his works. Among them the epical poem Poltava is considered by the experts the example of overcoming Byron's previous influence. What is followed in this paper is the treatment of the different tragic connections between power and individual by Puškin.

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The oldest textual variant of the Russian religious folk song “Forty pilgrims and one more pilgrim” dates from the mid-eighteenth century. The song is a special type of apology, produced by pilgrims for their own laudation and glorification, with the intention to raise the respect of people for them. The wife of the Grand Prince of Kiev wanted to commit adultery with the spiritual leader of the pilgrims, for which God punished her with a severe disease, most probably with leper. The symptoms of the wife’s disease and the circumstances of her recovery indicate that the pneuma-theory, the most ancient concept of the origin of diseases, was familiar to the Russians. In connection to the religious songs analyzed in my paper I found medical practices similar to those in Hungarian folk culture and in the ancient medicine of the Lamaist Tibet. On the basis of this, it can be claimed that the disease of the wife of the Grand Prince was caused by some internal or external “evil wind”. Consequently, the treatment was connected to the wind as well.

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Abstract  

This article takes the case of the Italian author Dino Buzzati who, parallel to his literary oeuvre best known for its fantastic qualities, spent forty years from 1928 to 1972 as a journalist and columnist for Corriere della sera, practising every conceivable sub-genre of journalism and becoming a sort of 'directeur occulte' of the paper. Focusing on Cronache terrestri, the selection of Buzzati's articles published posthumously, my analysis explores the borderline between literature and journalism in Buzzati's work for Corriere, singling out for particular attention the intersection between specific journalistic techniques (in particular his 'leads' and his titles) and his recourse to the 'fantastic' in the treatment of topical themes and contemporary events (including war reportage). Buzzati's 'borderline', I argue, can be posited as an 'in between-area' between literature and journalism, reality and fantasy, where the signature of Buzzati, as correspondent for an authoritative Italian daily, validates the existence of (apparently) 'impossible' worlds, and where his accumulation of reportorial details and enumerations create fictions of (hyper) reality and the conditions necessary to the 'hesitation' that Todorov ascribes to the fantastic mode.

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