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Introduction Traditional co-citation analysis does not take into account the proximity of references co-cited by an article. Some references are cited within the same sentence, whereas other references may be cited in further

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This paper focuses on the study of self-citations at the meso and micro (individual) levels, on the basis of an analysis of the production (1994–2004) of individual researchers working at the Spanish CSIC in the areas of Biology and Biomedicine and Material Sciences. Two different types of self-citations are described: author self-citations (citations received from the author him/herself) and co-author self-citations (citations received from the researchers’ co-authors but without his/her participation). Self-citations do not play a decisive role in the high citation scores of documents either at the individual or at the meso level, which are mainly due to external citations. At micro-level, the percentage of self-citations does not change by professional rank or age, but differences in the relative weight of author and co-author self-citations have been found. The percentage of co-author self-citations tends to decrease with age and professional rank while the percentage of author self-citations shows the opposite trend. Suppressing author self-citations from citation counts to prevent overblown self-citation practices may result in a higher reduction of citation numbers of old scientists and, particularly, of those in the highest categories. Author and co-author self-citations provide valuable information on the scientific communication process, but external citations are the most relevant for evaluative purposes. As a final recommendation, studies considering self-citations at the individual level should make clear whether author or total self-citations are used as these can affect researchers differently.

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The paper introduces a concept for measuring the interpretive fragmentation of scientific fields by the analysis of their citation networks. Transitive closure in two-mode networks is the basis of the proposed measurement. To test the validity of the concept two analyses are presented. One compares the integrity of two social sciences, sociology and economics, and a natural science, biophysics. The results are in line with the widely held opinion, that because of the lack in cumulative and consensual knowledge production mechanisms the social sciences are more disintegrated. Sociology is considerably more fragmented then economics, as the different paradigm structure of these disciplines would predict. As a second test, the fragmentation of scholarly communication inside and between the sub-fields of sociology is measured. The results correctly indicate that meaning making processes are taking place inside invisible colleges.

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. 1995 What's the use of citation? Citation analysis as a literature topic in selected disciplines of the social science Journal of Information Science 21 75 – 85

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on three bibliometric approaches to provide an objective profile of USDA's intramural scientific research: (1) publication analysis, (2) citation analysis, and (3) science mapping. In addition to these bibliometric analyses, we assessed the quality of

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Introduction Scientometric analysis of the cognitive-epistemological structure of science is traditionally based whether on citation links (e.g., bibliographic coupling, cross-citation, co-citation analysis) and textual links

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Mapping the intellectual structure of information retrieval studies: an author co-citation analysis, 1987–1997 Journal of Information Science 25 67 – 78

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Adam, D. Citation Analysis: The Counting House. Nature, 2002, 415 , 726–729. Adam D. Citation Analysis: The Counting

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In this study we show that it is possible to identify top-cited publications other than Web of Science (WoS) publications, particularly non-journal publications, within fields in the social and behavioral sciences. We analyzed references in publications that were themselves highly cited, with at least one European address. Books represent between 62 (psychology) and 81% (political science) of the non-WoS references, journal articles 15–24%. Books (economics, political science) and manuals (psychology) account for the most highly cited publications. Between 50 (psychology, political science) and 71% (economics) of the top-ranked most cited publications originated from the US versus between 18 (economics) and 38% (psychology) from Europe. Finally, it is discussed how the methods and procedures of the study can be optimized.

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analysis if each of the components causes specific problems in the application to long-term analysis. The inappropriateness of the application of both bibliographic coupling and co-citation analysis over periods, say, longer than 10 years are caused by

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