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Abstract  

The emerging influence of new information and communication technologies (ICT) on collaboration in science and technology has to be considered. In particular, the question of the extent to which collaboration in science and in technology is visible on the Web needs examining. Thus the purpose of this study is to examine whether broadly similar results would occur if solely Web data was used rather than all available bibliometric co-authorship data. For this purpose a new approach of Web visibility indicators of collaboration is examined. The ensemble of COLLNET members is used to compare co-authorship patterns in traditional bibliometric databases and the network visible on the Web. One of the general empirical results is a high percentage (78%) of all bibliographic multi- authored publications become visible through search of engines in the Web. One of the special studies has shown Web visibility of collaboration is dependent on the type of bibliographic multi-authored papers. The social network analysis (SNA) is applied to comparisons between bibliographic and Web collaboration networks. Structure formation processes in bibliographic and Web networks are studied. The research question posed is to which extent collaboration structures visible in the Web change their shape in the same way as bibliographic collaboration networks over time. A number of special types of changes in bibliographic and Web structures are explained.

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This paper maps the domain of earth and environmental sciences (EES) and investigates the relationship between cognitive problem structures and internationalisation patterns, drawing on the concepts of systemic versus cumulative global environmental change (GEC) and mutual task dependence in scientific fields. We find that scientific output concentration and internationalisation are significantly higher in the systemic GEC fields of Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography than in the cumulative GEC fields Ecology and Water Resources. The relationship is explained by stronger mutual task dependence in systemic GEC fields. In contrast, the portion of co-authorships with developing, emerging and transition countries among all international publications is larger for Water Resources than for the three other fields, consistent with the most pressing needs for STI capacity development in these countries.

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The paper demonstrates visualization technique that show the collaboration structure of institutions in the specialty and the researchers that function as weak ties among them. Institution names were extracted from the collection of papers and disambiguated using the Derwent Analytics (v1.2) software product. Institutions were clustered into collaboration groups based on their co-occurrence in papers. A crossmap of clustered institutions against research fronts, which were derived using bibliographic coupling analysis, shows the research fronts that specific institutions participate in, their collaborator institutions and the research fronts in which those collaborations occurred. A crossmap of institutions to author teams, derived from co-authorship analysis, reveals research teams in the specialty and their general institutional affiliation, and further identifies the researchers that function as weak ties and the institutions that they link. The case study reveals that the techniques introduced in this paper can be used to extract a large amount of useful information about institutions participating in a research specialty.

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A bibliometric analysis was performed to assess the quantitative trend of published pentachlorophenol (PCP) remediation studies, including both degradation and sorption. The documents studies were retrieved from the Science Citation Index (SCI) for the period from 1994 to 2005. The trends were analyzed with the retrieved results in publication language, document type, page count, publication output, publication pattern, authorship, citation analysis and country of publication. The results indicated that degradation was the emphasis for PCP remediation. The average impact factor of the journals was higher for publishing degradation studies in comparison to that publishing sorption studies. And there was a positive correlation between CPP and IF for journals published more than two papers. The publishing countries of both degradation and sorption denoted that most of these researches were done by USA and Canada. Two to four authors was the most popular level of co-authorship.

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The discussion about how to treat author self-citations driven by policy application and quality measurement intensified in the last years. The definition introduced by Snyder and Bonzi has - in lack of any reasonable alternative - been used in bibliometric practice for science policy purposes. This method, however, does not take into account the weight of self-citing authors among co-authors of both the cited and citing papers. The objective of the present paper is to quantify the weight of self-citations with respect to co-authorship. The analysis is conducted at two levels: at the macro level, namely, for fifteen subject fields and the most active forty countries, and at the meso level, for a set of selected research institutions.

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This article analyses changes in publication patterns over a twenty-year period at Norwegian universities. Based on three surveys among academic staff; in 1982, 1992 and 2001, covering all kinds of publications, the following general conclusions are drawn: (a) co-authorship has become more common, (b) the extent of publishing directed towards an international audience has increased, (c) the scientific article in an international journal has enhanced its position as the dominating type of publication, and (d) the number of publications per academic staff member has increased. The largest changes have taken place within the social sciences, which to an increasing extent approaches the publication pattern in the natural sciences. On the other hand, the large productivity differences between individual researchers have remained remarkably stable over the two decades in all fields of learning.

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The Swedish innovation system is analysed in terms of the interaction between academia, government and the private sector. For each of 21 Swedish regions we analyse the distribution of research activities, doctoral employment, and publication output, as well as the flow of doctoral graduates and the distribution of co-authorship links across regions and sectors. The three main urban regions have about 75 percent of all R&D activities and outputs. They also have a more balanced supply of academic, governmental and private research activities than the smaller regions, and the interactions among sectors within these regions are more intense. The inter-regional flow of PhDs is also to the advantage of the big regions. So far, decentralization of the academic sector does not seem to have had as similar decentralizing effect on private R&D. Unless this imbalance changes, smaller regions will continue to be net exporters of skill and knowledge to the big regions.

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Publications resulting from international cooperation and included in seven SCI annual files 1987–1989 and 1992–1995 were analyzed. It was observed that after the political changes of the turn of 1980s considerable increase in the number of publications was accompanied by the geographic development of co-authorship. Information coming from SCI 1992–1995, elaborated, completed and encoded were entered into an own database designed for analytical purposes. During these four years above 9600 papers were published in over 1600 prestige journals, of which almost 2200 publications resulted from multilateral cooperation. Altogether the foreign coauthors came from 102 countries, but over 80% of international papers were published in cooperation with the partners from 11 countries. The domestic participants came from over 200 research and educational organizations. It was found that the biggest share of papers within this multidisciplinary file represented physics (≈40%), chemistry (≈21%), and biomedical research (≈11%).

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Bibliometrics have been used in novel ways to assist with the evaluation of two medical schools, one in England and one in Sweden. The first evaluation was intended to allow the relative strengths in 26 subfields of five component campuses to be estimated. Selective filters for each subfield were defined, many of them with the help of the school's reserrch staff, so that relevant papers could be retrieved from a database on the basis of their title keywords and specialist journals. The campus outputs were then analysed by the research level of the journals (clinical/basic) and their influence. In the second evaluation, nine different indicators of research output were produced so that the school could be compared with four others in Scandinavia. The indicators included measures of output, co-authorship, journal esteem and citations by papers and by patents.

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An analysis of 3174 papers published in journals in the field of laserscience and technology indicate that only 401 papers were single authoredand the rest 2773 were co-authored papers. Of the 2773 papers, only 687 werewritten in local (inter-departmental), domestic (inter-institutional) andinternational collaboration. As reflected by the values of collaborative coefficientand co-authorship index, it is observed that the proportion of mega-authoredpapers for Japan, France, Italy, and the Netherlands was more, while for Canada,China, and Australia the proportion of single authored papers was more. Mostof the collaborative papers had bilateral domestic and international collaboration.Domestic collaborations were higher for USA, Japan, France and Australia,while international collaboration was higher for China, Israel, the Netherlands,and Switzerland.

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