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Abstract  

Criteris for deciding upon the support effect by the thermal decomposition of precursor/support systems are discussed. Instead of the linear relationship between lgA and E, two new criteria determined by the calculated rate maximum were suggested. Dimensionless criteria based on the rate, conversion and temperature values at the inflexion point of the TG diagram lead to a parameter able to describe the support effect in a synthetic and quantitative manner. The experimental data were the TG-curves for the decomposition of ammonium metavanadate, molybdic acid and ammonium phosphomolybdate, supported on carborundum and silica.

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Abstract  

The thermal behavior of Cd2+ and Co2+ phenyl-vinyl-phosphonates was studied using two different experimental strategies: the coupled TG-EGA (FTIR) technique by decomposition in nitrogen respectively air, and the kinetic analysis of TG data obtained in dynamic air atmosphere at four heating rates. In nitrogen two decomposition steps were observed: the loss of crystallization water, respectively the decomposition of the phenyl-vinyl radical. In air, the same dehydration was observed as the first step, but the second one is a thermooxidation of the organic radical with formation of the pyrophosphoric anion. The kinetic analysis of the TG non-isothermal data was performed by the isoconversional methods suggested by Friedman and Flynn, Wall and Ozawa, as well as by the non-parametric (Sempere-Nomen) method. All processes put in evidence in TG curves exhibit strong changes of the activation energy values with the conversion degree, which mean that these processes are complex ones. Assuming that each of these processes consists in two steps, the application of non-parametric method leads to average values of the activation energy close to the average values of this parameter obtained by isoconversional methods.

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Abstract  

The non-isothermal decomposition process of the powder sample of palladium acetylacetonate [Pd(acac)2] was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Model-free isoconversional method of Tang, applied to the investigated decomposition process, yield practically constant apparent activation energy in the range of 0.05≤α≤0.95. It was established, that the Coats-Redfern (CR) method gives several statistically equivalent reaction models, but only for the phase-boundary reaction models (R2 and R3), the calculated value of the apparent activation energy (E) is nearest to the values of E obtained by the Tang’s and Kissinger’s methods. The apparent activation energy value obtained by the IKP method (132.4 kJ mol−1) displays a good agreement with the value of E obtained using the model-free analysis (130.3 kJ mol−1). The artificial isokinetic relationship (aIKR) was used for the numerical reconstruction of the experimental integral model function, g(α). It was established that the numerically reconstructed experimental function follows R3 reaction model in the range of α, taken from model-free analysis. Generally, decomposition process of Pd(acac)2 starts with initial nucleation which was characterized by rapid onset of an acceleratory reaction without presence of induction period.

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Abstract  

The thermal decompositions of ammonium metavanadate, molybdic acid and ammonium phosphomolybdate supported on carborundum or silica were subjected to non-isothermal kinetic study. The compensation effect is discussed in connection with the quantitative estimation of the support effect.

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Summary Many years ago, thermal analysis earned its place as a current instrumentation technique in assisting/solving the analytical problems of pharmaceuticals. A relative new trend is the study of the thermal stability of food additives in connection with the molecular structure. The studied compounds were: natrium and potassium glutamate, respectively natrium, potassium and calcium benzoate. The thermogravimetric data (TG) were obtained in dynamic nitrogen atmosphere, with open Pt crucible and heating rates of 5, 7, 10 and 12 K min-1, using a Perkin-Elmer TGA7 equipment. In order to estimate the non-isothermal kinetic parameters, the Friedman's differential-isoconversional method and the method suggested by Budrugeac and Segal (based on the compensation effect) were used. A variation of the activation energy vs. conversion was observed by using Friedman's method. The discrimination between the different reaction steps was performed by the non-parametric kinetic method, suggested by Sempere, Nomen and Serra. This is due to a complex process. The thermal stability data are very important for avoiding a possible misuse by processing of the studied food additives.

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