Authors:B. Karakelle, N. Öztürk, A. Köse, A. Varinlioğbrevelu, A. Erkol, and F. Yilmaz
The city of Kocaeli is in the western part of Anatolia in Turkey and has a population of approximately 1.000.000. There is no information about radioactivity in the Kocaeli soils samples so far. For this reason, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in soil samples from 27 different sampling stations in Kocaeli Basin and its surroundings have been determined. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country"s soils. The typical concentrations of 137Cs, 238U, 40K, 226Ra, 232Th found in surface soil samples ranged from 2±0.6 to 25±6 Bq/kg, from 11±4 to 49±10 Bq/kg, from 161±30 to 964±127 Bq/kg, from 10±4 to 58±11 Bq/kg, and from 11±3 to 65±13 Bq/kg, respectively.
Authors:R. Sivakumar, S. Selvasekarapandian, N. Mugunthamanikand, and V.M. Raghunath
Indoor natural radiation dose existing in dwellings of Coonoor have been estimated using thermoluminescent dosimeters. TLDs are displayed in indoors and are replaced after three-month period. The seasonal averages of the dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent are calculated from the measured results. Geographical and seasonal variations as well as the differences between indoor to outdoor dose rates have also been studied. Very good correlation exists between the indoor dose rates measured by TLD and environmental radiation dosimeter with correlation coefficient of 0.91. The annual effective dose equivalent to the Coonoor population due to indoor gamma radiation was estimated to be 970 mSv/y for the period of 1997–1998.
Authors:J. Zaidi, M. Arif, I. Fatima, and I. Qureshi
Extensive use of pan, by one-tenth of world"s population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in its ingredients. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 36 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in its four basic ingredients, leaf of betel pepper, betel nut, catechu and lime. The radiochemical separation methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. This study provides the base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in these ingredients. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pan was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits.
It is known that in the Turkish soil Se and Zn concentrations are somewhatlower than in other countries. Lower zinc intake causes significant healthproblems mostly at rural areas. Six different population groups, total of55 subjects, consisting of children, people from rural areas, university studentsand staff members were selected and diet samples were collected by duplicateportion technique. Bread and flour samples were collected from six differentbakeries in Ankara. Zinc, selenium and other trace elements in these sampleswere analyzed mostly by INAA. Daily dietary zinc intake differs among differentgroups, ranging 5–13 mg Zn/day, and for all cases, it is lower thanRDA value of 15 mg Zn/day. Similarly, selenium daily intake is around 20–53µg Se/day, which is also lower than RDA value of 55–70 µgSe/day.
Neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry(ICP-ES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) have been used to determineactual daily dietary intakes of minerals and trace elements in the Iranianpopulation. This article deals with the trace elemental analysis of dailydiets of the Iranian population differentiated with respect to food habits,geographical variability, literacy and income. Three study groups in fiveregions were defined. Thirty total daily diet samples were prepared basedon the method of dietary records. Also a few samples representing the intakesof two other study groups, males and females, were prepared by the duplicatediet method. Therefore, this study not only covered representative dietarypatterns of almost all adult people in Iran in a pilot study, but it alsopermitted to check the validity of the sampling methodology for total mixeddiet simulation.
The influence of stages of lactation on the mineral and trace elementconcentrations of breast milk collected from 20 healthy lactating women ina Nigeria population was investigated using instrumental neutron activationanalysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The breastmilk samples were divided into colostrum (day 1–5), transitional (day6–13) and mature milk (day 14–28). The result of the study showthat colostrum milk has a significantly higher mean concentration of Ca, Cl,Cu, Fe, Mg, Na and Zn than the transitional and mature milk. Furthermore,the mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, Na and Zn in transitional milk were foundto be significantly higher when compared with the mature milk. It was alsoobserved from the semi-log plot of the concentration of the elements againstdays of lactation that the concentration of all the elements decreased significantlythroughout the lactation period studied with Cu, Fe and Zn concentration showingthe greatest decline, particularly in the early stages of lactation.
Water samples collected from 321 sampling points at 1 km intervalsat a site located close to the industrial and geological areas in the Gedizriver were analysed for U, Ra, Na, Mg, Mn, K, Ni, Cd, Co, Pb, Al, Fe, Cr,Zn, Cu and Ca. Heavy metal concentrations in the samples were determined byatomic absorption spectroscopy, laser excited fluorescence, and radon collectorchamber. Factor analysis was used to describe the relationship among 16 elements.Four factors were extracted and they account for 67% of the total variancein the data. These factors are named as industry, sea, agriculture and geology.According to this result, not only industrial plants but also geological structureand agricultural activities were seen to contribute in polluting of the riverwater. Beside, these factors have shown that a lot of agricultural activitiesand a sharp increase in the population of the Gediz basin, and industrialdevelopment related to above reasons speed up pollution of water sources andbecome a potential risk on the unpolluted sources.
Authors:D. Swindle, R. Pearson, N. Wogman, and P. Krey
The sensitivity of environmental sampling and analysis for the estimated atmospheric concentrations of radionuclides in effluents from clandestine nuclear facilities may require many sampling sites and exorbitant costs to monitor such large areas. An assessment has been made of the key factors necessary to support the operation of a nuclear facility, e.g., the existence of a nearby transportation network, main electrical power supply, and population centers. Screening, the subject of this paper, evaluates how cartographic data and satellite imagery can be used to identify areas most capable of supporting undeclared nuclear operations. As a result, large geographical areas can be eliminated from environmental monitoring and sampling. This leads to reduced costs, a reduction in the number of sampling sites required, and a reduction in the overall level of effort required to accomplish effective environmental monitoring. The screening methodology and techniques are described and examples given.
Authors:J. Planinić, D. Faj, B. Vuković, Z. Faj, V. Radolić, and B. Suveljak
Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample.
Authors:Y. Takizawa, L. Zhao, M. Yamamoto, T. Abe, and K. Ueno
To determine the levels of210Pb and210Po in human tissues of people in Japan, various tissue samples were obtained at autopsy from the cadavers of 22 oncologic cases, mainly in Niigata Prefecture in northern Japan, from 1986 to 1988.Wet ashing, followed by electrochemical deposition and alpha spectrometry were used to separate and determine the210Pb and210Po present. Among the tissues analyzed, the highest concentrations of210Pb and210Po were observed in bone (sternum), liver, and kidneys. The total body burden of210Pb and210Po was found to be approximately 427 pCi and 514 pCi, respectively. This estimated210Po value did not differ significantly from values found in populations in the U.S.A. and European countries.