The interaction between the bacteria and the host is a key factor determining the clinical consequences of H. pylori infection. The immune system plays an important role in either promoting or preventing the disease. The mucosal production of TNF-a, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 and the CagA status were investigated in H. pylori-positive patients with duodenal ulcer (DU). The concentrations of these cytokines in gastric antral mucosal specimens from patients infected with H. pylori (n = 40) were determined by ELISA and compared with data on mucosal specimens from H. pylori-negative patients (n = 12). The local TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in the antral biopsy samples were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the patients infected with H. pylori than in the samples from the H. pylori-negative subjects. CagA positivity was demonstrated in 39 (97.5%) of the 40 patients with DU, and in 41 (70.7%) of H. pylori-positive (58 of 100) healthy blood donors. In complementary studies focusing on extragastric disease, it was found that 57% of patients with ischaemic heart disease were seropositive as concerns H. pylori, and 91% of them had antibodies against human heat shock protein 60, too. This study suggests that, besides the bacterial virulence factor, the host response of an increased mucosal production of inflammatory cytokines can be relevant to the gastric pathophysiology in H. pylori-induced DU. At the same time, in ischaemic heart diseases the role of autoimmune processes induced by H. pylori cannot be excluded.
Experimental models that mimic the clinical syndrome of human viral encephalitis and represent HSV-1 neurotropism were utilized to investigate neuro-pharmacologic changes mediating clinical and behavioral manifestations of encephalitic infection of the central nervous system with HSV-1-induced rapid activation of the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenocortical (HPA) axis and production of brain derived interleukin-1 (IL-1) and prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2), independently of viral replication. HSV-1 infection induced clinical signs of fever, motor hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. These manifestations were dependent on a permissive action of circulating glucocorticoids and not related to the degree of viral replication in the brain. Hyperthermia and HPA axis activation were also specifically dependent on HSV-1-induced brain IL-1 and PG-E2. The chronic neurological sequel or fatal outcome of HSV-1 encephalitis may be due to viral replication and brain tissue destruction, which are dependent on virus encoded virulence genes. In contrast, the clinical and behavioral signs in the acute phase are a result of activation of neurochemical systems, including cytokines, prostaglandinds and catecholamines. Circulating glucocorticoids play an essential role in mediating the physiologic actions of HSV-1-induced brain products and the clinical syndrome of encephalitis.
The production of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an important virulence factor of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum on wheat. We have engineered a DON sensitive yeast strain and constructed a cDNA library from DON treated wheat suspension culture cells in a yeast expression vector. The library was used to select DON resistance conferring clones. Besides ORFs of unknown function, we found 3 classes of cDNAs that in addition to DON resistance conferred hypersensitivity to hygromycin and canavanine. The predicted functions of several of the wheat cDNAs (putative E3 ligase, ubiquitin specific protease, proteasome subunit) suggested a role for ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation in DON resistance. Results with a coupled wheat germ in vitro translation system and a GUS-luciferase fusion gene showed that DON is a powerful translation elongation inhibitor. The truncated proteins formed in the presence of DON most likely lead to ubiquitin depletion and consequently growth inhibition in yeast. Ubiquitin is essential for many processes in plants, including plant defense. Our results warrant the re-evaluation of the relevance of proteasome system components found to be differentially regulated during Fusarium infection.
An account is given using typing methods and detection of virulence genes of different serotypes of Escherichia coli isolated in Hungary. By hybridization using SLT-I and SLT-II probes and PCR method using stx1-2, eae and ehx primers we could differentiate O157 strains of different serotypes into eight (stx, eae, ehxA positive; stx, eae positive; stx, ehxA positive; stx positive; eae, ehxA positive; eae positive; ehxA positive; stx, eae, ehxA negative) types. The discriminatory power of phage typing proves to be much higher than that of the plasmid profile. RAPD typing with different primers could confirm or exclude the subtypes identity of the isolated E. coli O157 serotypes. Escherichia coli O157:HNM isolates could be sorted in six different phage types and six different RAPD types with ERIC-1, in five RAPD types with ERIC-2 and in seven types with M13 primers. Escherichia coli O157:H7 showed six different phage types and three RAPD types with ERIC-1 and ERIC-2 and five types with M13 primers. According to our results the standard PFGE protocol  gives the opportunity to differentiate epidemiologically independent but evolutionary related or unrelated isolates, but the practical value of PFGE method for epidemiological purposes must be confirmed by other or more restriction enzymes or using an other protocol. Summarizing our results we suggest the use of phage and RAPD typing and in doubtful cases the PFGE method.
Granulomatous lesions in bovine and especially swine lymph nodes are still frequently observed during routine veterinary meat inspections even though Mycobacterium bovis infections are no longer detected in domestic animals in Slovenia. Different lymph nodes of pigs (n = 260) were investigated using classical bacteriological and molecular methods. Mycobacterium avium alone was isolated in 47.3% of pigs and in mixed infection with Rhodococcus equi in 3.9% of pigs. R. equi alone was isolated in 27.3% and in mixed infection with mycobacteria other than M. avium in 1.5% of pigs. A total of 133 M. avium isolates were typed using the IS1245, IS901 and FR300 PCR. Almost two thirds (60.9%) of isolates belonged to M. avium hominissuis (IS901-, IS1245+ genotype), 33.8% of isolates belonged to M. avium avium (IS901+, IS1245+ genotype) and 5.3% of isolates remained non-typed. Fifty out of 85 R. equi isolates were tested for the virulence-associated antigens (VapA and VapB). Nearly two thirds (60.0%) were positive for VapB while all the other isolates were VapA- and VapB-negative.
The fecal samples from 213 captive reptiles were examined, and 29 (13.61%) Salmonella enterica isolates were detected: 14/62 (22.58%) from chelonians, 14/135 (10.37%) from saurians, and 1/16 (6.25%) from ophidians. The isolates were distributed among 14 different serotypes: Miami, Ebrie, Hermannsweder, Tiergarten, Tornov, Pomona, Poona, Goteborg, Abaetetube, Nyanza, Kumasi, Typhimurium, 50:b:z6, 9,12:z29:1,5, and a non-motile serotype with antigenic formula 1,4,,12:-:-. Salmonella typhimurium and 50:b:z6 isolates showed the spv plasmid virulence genes, responsible of the capability to induce extra-intestinal infections. In some cases, pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed different profiles for the strains of the same serotypes, showing different origins, whereas a common source of infection was supposed when one pulsotype had been observed for isolates of a serovar. Twenty-seven (93.10%) isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Ceftazidime was active to all the tested isolates, whereas the highest percentages of strains were no susceptible to tigecycline (93.10%), streptomycin (89.66%), and sulfonamide (86.21%).
Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and b-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed.
The unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena is a complete organism, one of the most highly developed protozoans, which has specialized organelles performing each of the functions characteristic to the cells of higher ranked animals. It is also able to produce, store, and secrete hormones of higher ranked animals and also react to them. It produces lectins that can bind them and has functions, which are influenced by exogenous lectins. The review lists the observations on the relationship between lectins and Tetrahymena and try to construe them on the basis of the data, which are at our disposal. Considering the data, lectins can be used by Tetrahymena as materials for influencing conjugation, for stimulating hormone receptors, and by this, mimic the hormonal functions. Lectins can influence phagocytosis and movement of the cells as well as the cell division. As Tetrahymena can recognize both related and hostile cells by the help of lectins and surface sugars, it could be surmised a complex predator–prey system. This could determine the survival of the population as well as the nourishment conditions. When Tetrahymena is pathogenic, it can use lectins as virulence factors.
This is the first report of Pasteurella multocida type B in Hungarian pigs. This disease was observed in backyard-raised pigs in three households within a small area. Neither the source of the infection nor the epidemiological connection between any of the premises could be determined. The most consistent lesion was dark red discolouration of the skin of the ventral neck and brisket, with accompanying oedema and haemorrhages. The morbidity was low and lethality relatively high, with three dead (50%) and two euthanised (33%) out of six affected animals. A total of three isolates of P. multocida (P55, P56 and P57) were cultured from these cases and examined in detail. These were identified as P. multocida ssp. multocida biovar 3. All were toxA negative and belonged to serotype B:2. Multilocus sequence typing was used to assign these to a new sequence type (ST61) that is closely related to other haemorrhagic septicaemia causing strains of P. multocida regardless of the host. M13 polymerase chain reaction and virulence-associated gene typing also show that type B strains form a highly homogeneous, distinct phylogenic group within P. multocida.
A létfontosságú szervek elégtelenségének kezelésében a szervtranszplantáció a napi gyakorlat része. A recipiensek közös jellemzője, hogy immunszuppresszív kezelést igényelnek a szervkilökődés megakadályozása érdekében. Az immunszuppresszió növeli az infekcióhajlamot, különösen az egyébként alacsony virulenciájú opportunista kórokozókkal szemben. A szervtranszplantáltak fertőzéseinek jelentős része a tüdőt és a légutakat érinti. Az infekciós komplikációk felismerésében a pulmonológiai diagnosztika, magas szintű mikrobiológiai eljárások és a különböző képalkotó technikák alkalmazhatók. A terápia fejlődése és elérhetősége elengedhetetlen az infekciók eredményes kezeléséhez. Tekintve, hogy a szervtranszplantáltak száma folyamatosan nő, az orvos mind nagyobb számban találkozhat vese-, máj-, szív- vagy tüdőtranszplantált betegek pulmonalis komplikációival. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 899–903.