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Abstract  

The 598 papers on physics published between 1987 and 1994 with at least one author presinting Chilean affiliation are scrutinized. Several aspects are cross-examined along the period of eight years: number of papers, cumulative impact factor, average impact factor, international co-authorship, most visited journals and main Chilean institutions. It is found that physics is growing in Chile with international collaboration playing an important role. The average impact factor is relatively high and rather constant throughout the period reflecting that the good level of Chilean physics is stable. The articles spread in 165 different journals, but most of the productivity is to be found in a few journals of high impact factor. Most of the research is done by institutions in Santiago but other emerging institutions are also identified.

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Abstract  

The study discusses the application of various forms of time series analysis to national performance data for EEC countries and the US. First, it is shown that at the aggregated level, a straightforward relation exists between output and input, which varies with time. Various analytical techniques to account for the time factor are discussed. By using information theory, a simple formula can be derived which gives the best prediction for the following year's data. Subsequently, this model is extended to multi-variate forecasting of distributions. Additionally, it can be shown by using this method that in terms of percentage of world share of publications the hypothesis that the EEC develops as a single publication system has to be rejected. However, when co-authorship relations among EEC member countries are used as an indicator, the predominance of a system is suggested.

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The networking university

A study of a Swedish University using institutional co-authorships as an indicator

Scientometrics
Author:
G. Melin

Abstract  

This article examines the subject of research collaboration, and elaborates on this subject on an institutional rather than an individual level. An empirical case-study is presented; the research collaboration of Umeå University in Sweden, during the period 1991–1993 is investigated. Institutional co-authorships based on the addresses of the departments are used as an indicator of this collaboration. The results are separated into three levels: the local level, the national level, and the international level. It is obvious that the research collaboration is most extensive. Finally the university's collaboration is discussed and a scheme is proposed with the purpose to understand research collaboration in a social as well as a cognitive context. The guiding terms here are access, visibility and attractiveness.

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Abstract  

Data are presented on the scientific output from 1985–92 of the Less Favoured Regions (LFRs) of the European Community as recorded in theScience Citation Index. The use of postcodes makes it easier to identify papers from LFRs and they are now nearly universal (over 95%). LFR output has grown since 1985 from 5% to nearly 8% of the EC total, and there is much more trans-national co-authorship between ones in different countries though it is still at a low level. There is also increasing co-publication between scientists from LFRs and the rest of the EC (More Favoured Regions, MFRs), both within the same countries and trans-nationally. Selective retrieval of papers by their address keywords shows that the LFRs are relatively strong in the physical, rather than the life, sciences and that the major areas of growth in recent years have been engineering, earth/space sciences and physics.

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Abstract  

At the occasion of the completion of the 25th volume ofScientometrics, we present a combined bibliometric and social network analysis of this journal. In more than one respect,Scientometrics displays the characteristics of a social science journal. Its Price Index amounts to 43.0 percent, and is remarkably stable over time. The majority of the published items inScientometrics has been written by a single author. Moreover, the network of co-authorships is highly fragmented: most authors cooperate with no more than one or two colleagues. Both the citation networks of the authors and the network of title words indicate that the field is nonetheless highly cohesive. In this sense, a specific identity seems to have developed, indeed. Some indications concerning the character of this identity are discussed.

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Studies in scientific collaboration

Part I. The professional origins of scientific co-authorship

Scientometrics
Authors:
D. Beaver
and
R. Rosen

Abstract  

From a historical and sociological perspective, this essay presents and develops the first comprehensive theory of scientific collaboration: collaborative scientific research, formally acknowledged by co-authorships of scientific papers, originated, developed, and continues to be practiced as a response to the professionalization of science. Following an overview of the origins and early history of collaboration in the 17th and 18th centuries, a study of the first professionalized scientific community, that of Napoleonic France, confirms that, as the theory predicts, collaboration is a typical research style associated with professionalization. In the early 19th century, virtually all joint research was performed by French scientists; collaborative research only appeared much later in England and Germany when they, too, underwent professionalization. That historical finding, which constitutes a puzzling anomaly for any other view of scientific teamwork, here conforms to theoretical expectation. Several other predictions of the theory are presented, to be taken-up in subsequent studies.

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A bibliometric analysis was performed to assess the quantitative trend of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) treatment research, including intravenous injection of indomethacin and surgery. The documents studied were retrieved from the Science Citation Index (SCI) for the period from 1991 to 2002. The publication pattern concerning authorship, collaboration, original countries, citation frequency, document type, language of publication, distribution of journals, page count and the most frequently cited papers were performed. The results indicated that either treatment was not the recent emphasis of PDA research. The publishing countries of both treatments have also denoted that these researches were mostly done in Europe and North America. Both surgery and drug treatments had few international collaboration papers. English was the dominant language, and collaboration of two to six authors was the most popular level of co-authorship.

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Abstract  

Year-on-year trends in research outputs show increases in research activity as the date of the research assessment exercise—in New Zealand the Performance-Based Research Fund (PBRF)—looms. Moreover, changes with time in the number and types of conference presentation indicate that the vehicle of publication is also being influenced by the PBRF. Within New Zealand business schools, relating the published journal articles to the Australian Business Deans Council rankings list shows a trend towards more publications of lower rank, raising doubts about whether the rhetoric about the PBRF raising the quality of research is really justified. This ‘drive’ towards increasing numbers of research outputs is also fostered by an increasing trend towards co-authorship in publishing across all disciplines.

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numbers. Applying this definition to a partnership, e.g., a co-authorship, network, this number becomes the largest natural number P such that an actor has at least P partners with whom he/she had at least P joint actions. Replacing P with φ gives exactly

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Luka Kronegger
,
Franc Mali
,
Anuška Ferligoj
, and
Patrick Doreian

network analysts with information that is often viewed as more qualitative. 1 We use temporal data from the Slovene system of science that focuses on co-authorship networks in an effort to understand some of the dynamic aspects of scientific systems

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