The use of an electrochemical process for U/Pu partitioning has demonstrated a good performance and is a safe alternative for nuclear facilities. Its great advantages are the lack of introduction of foreign ions into the process and, especially, the minimization of the waste volume generated. For the introduction of electrochemical U/Pu partitioning in the 2nd Pu purification cycle, preliminary studies were carried out with a single mixer-settler unit. Based on the results, an 8-stage electrolytic mixer-settler (M-S MIRELE) was designed. Titanium was MIRELE's housing material (cathode) and platinum the anode, insulated with PTFE. The Pu recovery was higher than 99%, indicating the efficiency of this equipment.
Chemical factors such as pH, concentration and temperature affecting the removal of UO22+, Th4+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Pb2+,Cd2+, Ni2+, MnO4- and phenol by Eichornia crassipes aquatic plant from their solutions were examined. Maximum uptake of ions by Eichornia crassipes occurred at pH 4 to 6±0.5 at 25±3 °C. An initial rapid uptake phase for the first 6 hours followed by a slower near linear one was observed. One gram of Eichornia crassipes can accumulate about 25 mg UO22+, 5 mg Th4+, 30 mg Fe3+, 10 mg MnO4-, 15 mg Cu2+, 1.0 mg Pb2+, 1.5 mg Ni2+, 0.7 mg Cd2+ and or 25 mg of phenol.
The influence of radioactive krypton85Kr on the surface properties of poly(3-pentylthiophene) has been studied. Irradiation by gaseous85Kr leads to structural polymeric chain changes, which induce after iodine doping the formation of charge-transfer complexes with iodine as well as with gaseous sulfur dioxide manifesting itself by the increased electric conductivity. The presence of ammonia brings about reaction with iodine bound in the complex with a conducting polymer.
Authors:S. Marsh, G. Jarvinen, R. Bartsch, J. Nam, and M. Barr
Additional1 bifunctional anion-exchange resins have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to take up Pu(IV) from
nitric acid solutions. Bifunctionality is achieved by adding a second anion-exchange site to the pyridine nitrogen (also an
anion-exchange site) of the base poly(4-vinylpyridine) resin. Previous work focused on the effect of varying the chemical
properties of the added site along with the length of an alkylene ‘spacer’ between the two sites. Here we examine four new
3- and 4-picolyl derivatives which maintain more rigidly defined geometries between the two nitrogen cationic sites. These
materials, which have the two anion-exchange sites separated by three and four carbons, respectively, exhibit lower overall
Pu(IV) distribution coefficients than the corresponding N-alkylenepyridium derivatieves with more flexible spacers. Methylation
of the second pyridium site results in a ca. 20% increase in the Pu(IV) distribution coefficients.
Authors:G. Müller, M. Navarrete, T. Martínez, and L. Cabrera
Nuclear chemistry is usually associated with great disasters, especially the atomic bomb; this without reflecting that knowledge
of nuclear chemistry has also had many benefits in the field of medicine and health. Whereas in technologically advanced countries,
nuclear chemistry is considered to be an important part of the syllabus, including topics such as radioactivity with the emphasis
in making conscience in the common citizen of the inherent benefits.
The choice of an appropriate and safe disposal alternative should be based on the wide range of physicochemical examination thermal analysis in conjunction with other data enables identification of wastes, allows determination of weight losses at any stage of thermal decomposition and characterization of the combustible properties of wastes.
The dynamics of SO2 emission during thermooxidation of Estonian oil shale, its semicoke, different samples of coal and their mixtures, as well
as the influence of Estonian oil shale ash addition (for modelling the CFBC process) on the dynamics were studied. The experiments
were carried out with thermogravimetric equipment under dynamic heating conditions (5 K min-1) in the atmosphere of dried air, with simultaneous gastitrimetric EGA.
It was established that SO2 emission from the fuels started at 200-320C. Depending on the form of sulphur (organic, pyritic, sulphate), the emission
took place in two or three steps, and continued up to 580-650C, during which 35-75% of the total sulphur was emitted into
the gaseous phase. Regulating the mole ratio of free CaO/S in the mixtures of fuels with oil shale ash addition the emission
of SO2 ceased abruptly at 460-540C and it was limited to the level of 7-30%.
Authors:S. Marinković, A. Kostić-Pulek, S. Durić, V. Logar, and M. Logar
Selenite was boiled in KCl solutions of different concentrations at the respective boiling temperatures and atmospheric pressure. The products were subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis, qualitative infrared analysis, differential thermal analysis and microscopic examination. The product obtained in 1.0 M KCl solution was the -form of calcium sulphate hemihydrate (-CaSO4·0.5H2O). In more concentrated KCl solution (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 or 4.0 M), the -form of calcium sulphate hemihydrate (-CaSO4·0.5H2O) was formed, and a reaction took place between KCl and CaSO4, which gave a double salt: potassium pentacalcium sulphate monohydrate (K2SO4·5CaSO4·H2O).