The inadequacies of citation analysis-based quatitative techniques in the context of developing countries owe their origins to the rather small size of most peripheral country scientific enterprises, the poor coverage of Third World journals in bibliographic databases, (and in particularSCI), the cognitive limitations of citation analysis pointed out by microsociologists, and the non-normative nature of the scientific enterprise in these countries. Much of peripheral science is derivative and imitative of science done in the centre, rather than original or path-breaking, and there is hardly any indigenous scientific community. And yet, citation analysis-based quantitative measures can be applied to characterise different aspects of peripheral science. These techniques assume great importance, especially in view of the massive inadequacies of the peer review process prevailing in these countries. The application of such citation-based quantification to units of different levels of aggregation such as a journal, an institution and a country as a whole has been demonstrated taking India as the example. Our results show that levels of funding have no correlation with the quality or international citation impact of the literature output resulting from a project. Almost all Indian journals have a very low impact on world literature, and the relatively better performance ofJournal of Astrophysics and Astronomy (and Indian astronomical research in general) owes it to favourable factors, both social and cognitive.
Since theScience Citation Index emerged within the system of scientific communication in 1964, an intense controversy about its character has been raging:
in what sense can citation analysis be trusted? This debate can be characterized as the confrontation of different perspectives
on science. In this paper the citation representation of science is discussed: the way the citation creates a new reality
of as well as in the world of science; the main features of this reality; and some implications for science and science policy.
This work reports on the medical subject headings that build-up the medical education field in Latin America, through the content and citation analysis ofEducation Medica y Salud (EMS). An attempt was made to establish the articulations between the citing and cited countries in the region. It was generally found that EMS was built-up by subjects of Medical Education, Health Manpower, Water Supply, and Health Policy. Although strongly citing/cited/indexed countries, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia have not established significant information flows among them. Further research lines are proposed.
Detecting homogeneous areas in research networks is a very common feature of bibliometric analysis, either for academic or policy purposes. The method presented here combines structural analysis and trend detection, by operating on a thick-slice of time, starting from co-citation or co-word analysis (applications of either type have already been carried on). Significance of trend of clusters is partially addressed, through an analysis of publication delays. Examples are given on a co-citation analysis in the field of astrophysics (1986–1989).
This paper investigates the utility of the Inclusion Index, the Jaccard Index and the Cosine Index for calculating similarities
of documents, as used for mapping science and technology. It is shown that, provided that the same content is searched across
various documents, the Inclusion Index generally delivers more exact results, in particular when computing the degree of similarity
based on citation data. In addition, various methodologies such as co-word analysis, Subject-Action-Object (SAO) structures,
bibliographic coupling, co-citation analysis, and self-citation links are compared. We find that the two former ones tend
to describe rather semantic similarities that differ from knowledge flows as expressed by the citation-based methodologies.
A new method for the analysis of leadership and subdisciplinary structure of a scientific discipline is discussed. The database consists of lists of participants in international scientific meetings. Disciplinary leaders are identified by means of their frequency of participation. The subdisciplinary structure is mapped by means of cluster analysis of meetings with respect to degree of similarily. The method possesses strengths not shared by citation analysis: in addition to scientists frequently cited in the literature for their contribution to cognitive research programs, it also identifies administrative discipline builders. The method may also represent better the cognitive interests of scientists.
The research output of the Danish Technical University (DTUa) has been studied as an aspect of the organization's research policy and visibility in its international context. Papers
published in the three-year period (1992–94) were grouped according to 20 clusters of research areas. Using citation analysis
techniques, the dynamics of citation frequencies, and a number of other features of the research system, like self-citation,
research collaborations, relative impact on the international literature, etc., could be studied. The methods can be used
to analyze institutional and national research efforts and to monitor effects of changing policies.
This study develops and tests an integrated conceptual model of journal evaluation from varying perspectives of citation analysis. The main objective is to obtain a more complete understanding of the external factors affecting journal citation impact; that is, a theoretical construct measured by a number of citation indicators. Structural equation modelling (SEM) with partial least squares (PLS) is used to test the conceptual model with empirical data from journals in clinical neurology. Interrelationships among journal citation impact and four external factors (journal characteristics, journal accessibility, journal visibility and journal internationality) have been successfully explored, and the conceptual model of journal evaluation has been examined.