The inadequacies of citation analysis-based quatitative techniques in the context of developing countries owe their origins to the rather small size of most peripheral country scientific enterprises, the poor coverage of Third World journals in bibliographic databases, (and in particularSCI), the cognitive limitations of citation analysis pointed out by microsociologists, and the non-normative nature of the scientific enterprise in these countries. Much of peripheral science is derivative and imitative of science done in the centre, rather than original or path-breaking, and there is hardly any indigenous scientific community. And yet, citation analysis-based quantitative measures can be applied to characterise different aspects of peripheral science. These techniques assume great importance, especially in view of the massive inadequacies of the peer review process prevailing in these countries. The application of such citation-based quantification to units of different levels of aggregation such as a journal, an institution and a country as a whole has been demonstrated taking India as the example. Our results show that levels of funding have no correlation with the quality or international citation impact of the literature output resulting from a project. Almost all Indian journals have a very low impact on world literature, and the relatively better performance ofJournal of Astrophysics and Astronomy (and Indian astronomical research in general) owes it to favourable factors, both social and cognitive.
The research output of the Danish Technical University (DTUa) has been studied as an aspect of the organization's research policy and visibility in its international context. Papers
published in the three-year period (1992–94) were grouped according to 20 clusters of research areas. Using citation analysis
techniques, the dynamics of citation frequencies, and a number of other features of the research system, like self-citation,
research collaborations, relative impact on the international literature, etc., could be studied. The methods can be used
to analyze institutional and national research efforts and to monitor effects of changing policies.
Since theScience Citation Index emerged within the system of scientific communication in 1964, an intense controversy about its character has been raging:
in what sense can citation analysis be trusted? This debate can be characterized as the confrontation of different perspectives
on science. In this paper the citation representation of science is discussed: the way the citation creates a new reality
of as well as in the world of science; the main features of this reality; and some implications for science and science policy.
This study uses author co-citation analysis to trace prospectively the development of the cognitive neuroscience of attention
between 1980 and 2005 from its precursor disciplines: cognitive psychology, single cell neurophysiology, neuropsychology,
and evoked potential research. The author set consists of 28 authors highly active in attentional research in the mid-1980s.
PFNETS are used to present the co-citation networks. Authors are clustered via the single-link clustering intrinsic to the
PFNET algorithm. By 1990 a distinct cognitive neuroscience specialty cluster emerges, dominated by authors engaged in brain
Authors:Wolfgang Glänzel, Rickard Danell, and Olle Persson
Recent studies have reported on a steady decline of Sweden's relative citation impact in almost all science fields, above
all in the life sciences. The authors attempt to shed light on the observed decline in Swedish neuroscience through a detailed
citation analysis at different level of aggregations. Thus national citation data are decomposed to the institutional, departmental
and individual level. Both, the decomposition of national science indicators and changing collaboration patterns in Swedish
neuroscience reveal interesting details on the 'anatomy' of a decline.
This work reports on the medical subject headings that build-up the medical education field in Latin America, through the content and citation analysis ofEducation Medica y Salud (EMS). An attempt was made to establish the articulations between the citing and cited countries in the region. It was generally found that EMS was built-up by subjects of Medical Education, Health Manpower, Water Supply, and Health Policy. Although strongly citing/cited/indexed countries, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia have not established significant information flows among them. Further research lines are proposed.
Authors:A. Rivas, D. Deshler, R. Colle, R. González, and F. Quimby
Two indicators regarded to reflect the status of disciplinary differentiation were assessed through citation analysis. Adoption of scientific innovations (publications utilizing new scientific information) and interdisciplinary linkages (percentage of total publications of single disciplines which are cross-referenced by other disciplines) were investigated in selected biological professions. Findings indicated: 1) a significant delay in the use of innovations and a significant difference in the emphasis of interdisciplinary linkages in several professions and disciplines; 2) faster adoption of innovations and greater interdisciplinary linkages in areas with broader disciplinary contents; 3) an inter-personal communication pattern; and 4) slower adoption in applied than in basic fields.
A new method for the analysis of leadership and subdisciplinary structure of a scientific discipline is discussed. The database consists of lists of participants in international scientific meetings. Disciplinary leaders are identified by means of their frequency of participation. The subdisciplinary structure is mapped by means of cluster analysis of meetings with respect to degree of similarily. The method possesses strengths not shared by citation analysis: in addition to scientists frequently cited in the literature for their contribution to cognitive research programs, it also identifies administrative discipline builders. The method may also represent better the cognitive interests of scientists.