The funerary monument of John, duke of Berry (1340–1416) was completed and erected in Bourges's Sainte-Chapelle upon the order of Charles VII, his heir general. The questions such tombs raise include some concerning construction and architecture, and – when they were demonstrably not bought ready-made or the extant written order is not restricted to general features usually only concerning the attire – the question of portraiture may also be deliberated in connection with 13–15th century gisants and funerary sculpted monuments. It is evident that Jean de Berry's tomb includes a portrait, but the finished tomb was not ordered in this form by Charles VII, nor was it envisaged by the carver of the effigy and the five alabaster mourners (pleurants) but it was probably designed by the duke himself in collaboration with André Beauneveu during his lifetime. Archival data support the attribution to Jean de Cambrai, but it was André Beauneveu, Duke Jean's contemporary and artistic adviser according to Froissart, the carver of portrait-like royal effigies, who drew up the exact design of the monument for Jean de Cambrai, who, in turn, took over Beauneveu's workshop and probably most of his commissions in the early 1400s. This is proven by the expensive and delicate material, white marble, of the lying effigy (the parts ordered to be completed by the king are of cheaper alabaster), the inscription of an unusual tone held by the gisant and the bear lying at the duke's feet. Although the bear was the grand seigneur's emblem, it was also more than that: it was an honoured pet of his mé-nage for decades and the companion of the duke towards the end of his life. A bear is unusual at this part of a tomb which usually features conventional animals (dog, lion). Here the relationship between human and the curled-up bear at his feet has an unusually intimate, personal overtone. The bear figure is also a portrait: it was not made with the impersonality of the correct but perfunctory adoption of the few available bear depictions (mostly in pattern books). The designer thus composed Jean de Berry's tomb with great care. A similarly spectacular heraldic device adorns the tomb of Margaret de Bohum (†1391), wife of Hugh de Courtney, Earl of Devon, in Exeter Cathedral, but the pair of swans is only a spectacular element and not an equivalent complement to the effigy portrait. There remained hardly any trace of the influence of a four-year stay in England in 1360–64 upon the young duke and art patron after the destruction of his buildings and treasury, but one thing is certain: he chose his heraldic devices in imitation of the English dukes. The origins of the swan-bear charges and the motto Le temps vendrá have not been explained satisfactorily yet.
Concerning the duke's heraldic animals, the first to refer to a strophe in Jean de Berry's nephew, King René d'Anjou's Livre du coeur d'amour épris is Guiffrey. After him everyone in the research literature explained the heraldic bear with this strophe which only mentions a cygne blanc navré, creating a beloved English dame, Miss Ursin (Urcin) from the name of the patron saint (Saint Ursin) of the new estate of John of France, the duchy of Berry and its capital city, Bourges.
In the duke of Berry's farewell, his last portraiture the bear is just as important an element as are the broad, coarse face of the grand seigneur, his band crown and ermine-lined mantle, as well as the motto that he presses to his shoulder with his never-aging, almost boneless hand.
St. Peter has taken a priviliged place in Romanian popular religion. His birth was miraculous: his mother became pregnant, even though she was too old to have children, after having eaten an apple. He refused to be born until he was promised a fairy as his wife. He marries, becomes emperor for fifty years, but after the death of his wife, he becomes an eremite by the Jordan River. From there, he was taken by God to heaven. He can be seen together with the apostle St. Paul on the moon. He was given the keys to heaven and does not permit the entrance of sinners. He even denies entry to his own parents. He was a companion, servant, and adviser of the Lord on Earth as an old man wearing sandals of iron or of linden wood. He makes the mistakes of a common man: he wants to perform miracles but cannot; he decapitates a devil and a woman, but when he tries to correct his mistake, he puts the head of the devil on the woman’s shoulders and vice versa; he divulges a secret told to him by God; he goes to hell and does not return in time; he loses the keys to heaven; he enjoys alcohol, food, and tobacco. He is celebrated on January 16th and June 29th. He is the master of the animals, in particular wolves to whom he gives food on January 16th. For this reason there is a need for a study on the role of St. Peter in all European mythology.
Authors:Emese Nagy, Małgorzata Kaczanowska, Janusz Kozłowski, Magdalena Moskal-del Hoyo, and Maria Lityńska-Zając
A salvage excavation preceding a major investment project was conducted in 2006–2007, during which associated settlement features of a Middle Neolithic, Eastern Linear Pottery Culture (Alföld Linearbandkeramik — ALBK) were uncovered in an area called Piócási-dűlő on the eastern outskirts of Polgár. The features of the ALBK settlement date from two periods. The cluster of multi-functional pits yielding a rich assortment of finds, the handful of post-holes and an unusual ritual well found in the southern part of the investigated area formed one unit from the earliest phase of the Middle Neolithic (ALBK I). The settlement’s other occupation can be assigned to the late phase of the Middle Neolithic (ALBK IV). Five houseplans representing the remains of timber-framed buildings outlined a distinct area with three multi-functional pits. Associated with the above features were 8 burials.The preliminary archaeobotanical results from Polgár-Piócási-dűlő are based on the plant material found within the sediments of 11 archaeological structures, which mainly represent pits and a welI. It can be stated that the natural environment offered habitats in which oak trees dominated in the local vegetation, forming floodplain forests and wooded steppes. They also provided food in the form of fruits and formed an optimal habitat for domestic animals. Arable fields were probably also established in the vicinity of the settlements, suggested by findings of macroscopic plant remains that represented cultivated species.In both settlement phases lithic production activities are manifested both by the local on-site lithic production and — most importantly — by the presence of imported, mainly mesolocal, raw materials that point to contacts with deposit areas, or off-site preliminary working of obsidian and limnoquartzites. The kit of harvesting tools and a large number of grinding stones — especially in the younger phase — for the preparation of plant food suggest a major role of plant cultivation.
József Csáky (Joseph-Alexandre Csaky, Szeged 1888–1971 Paris) began his career in Paris as the pioneer of cubist sculpture. After World War I he made abstract sculptures, of which six are known about and four survive. He carved his polychrome reliefs in stone, less frequently in wood. In 1924 he turned towards art deco sculpture, making several animal figures for clients and art collectors of the upper middle classes. Later he became an exponent of realism and neo-classicism. Although he lived in Paris throughout his life, his contacts with Hungary were always strong. There is a great amount of literature on Csáky. Félix Marcilhac's well-documented monograph with a catalogue of 370 Csáky works appeared in 2007. The French gallery owner and art historian explored the French sources in the first place, some of the Dutch relations of the oeuvre remaining hidden before him. The present paper first summarizes the French events with relevance to the sculptor's life before describing his Dutch connections. His works first arrived in Holland through the Paris art gallery of Léonce Rosenberg. Csáky signed a 3-year contract with him in 1920. The famous Dutch art teacher and adviser Henk Bremmer purchased several of his works, some of which were incorporated later in Helene Kröller-Müller's collection. Art critic Bram Hammacher, later the director of the Kröller-Müller Museum wrote a study on Csáky, with whom he was on friendly terms, in 1932. In 1934 there were several major exhibitions of Csáky's works in the Netherlands. Prominent Dutch art critics wrote about his work, and he also had a chance to put to paper his artistic credo in the prestigious Elsevier's Geillustreerd Maandschrift between 1936 and 1940. Today there are 33 Csáky works in Dutch museums and there are others in private collections.
At the end of the Georgics Virgil represents himself as someone nursed by sweet Parthenope (IV 536: dulcis alebat / Parthenope). According to the rather obscure tradition which goes back to Servius, Parthenope would be an allusion to one of the Sirens, patron divinity of Naples-Parthenopolis, which was the favourite place of the poet. Nevertheless, Parthenope used to be considered as a self-referential joke on the nickname of Virgil, called Parthenias (a virgin) because of his moral excellence. The paper offers a new metapoetic reading of the passage which wishes to complete the earlier interpretations based on biographical data and local tradition. The allusion should also be regarded as a statement about inspiration. By suggesting a new approach to the mythology (see the Muse replaced by the Siren), the name of Parthenope appears to create an homage to Parthenius of Nicaea and to his strange collection of erotic myths. The studies about the impact of the Erotica pathemata on Latin poetry generally focus on the Elegiacs and Ovid. Nevertheless, it cannot be excluded that the mythological allusions of the Georgics about the origins of plants, animals, etc. may be influenced by some typical narrative patterns of Parthenius. The series of these virgilian aetological notes alluding to tragic love stories of Greek mythology seems to prepare the great Orpheus myth of Book IV. On the other hand, Virgil’s short allusions might transmit a concept of human passion, which sometimes is rather similar to the emotional world of the Parthenian narratives, but which is always much more rich in ethical concerns.
This article focuses on the possible connections which can be established between the Roman goddess Juno as the protector deity of marriages and married women and the rites and rituals associated with the sacred feast of the Lupercalia. The role of other Italic gods associated with these sacred ceremonies is also analyzed, such as the rustic god Faunus, as well as Jupiter, Mars, and Romulus-Quirinus (albeit in secondary roles; for example, the name Luperci given to the young Roman men involved in the ritual flogging of the Roman women of fertile age is linked with lupus, the Latin name of the wolf, animal sacred to the god Mars and forever bound to the Twins Romulus and Remus, the mythical and heroic founders of Rome). The amiculum Iunonis or the garment of Juno is in fact the name given to the ritual objects used by the Luperci in the act of symbolic fecundation of the Roman young women, namely the leather thongs carved out of the skin of a sacrificed goat. The he-goat (Latin hircus) is also connected with the ancient Roman and Latin god Faunus (the Italic divine counterpart of the ancient Greek Πᾶν). As a final acknowledgment, I hereby thank Professor Attilio Mastrocinque who had the idea of this study and whose book revealed to me the hidden links between Juno, Bona Dea, and the feast of the Lupercalia, normally associated with the god of wild nature, Faunus-Pan. I owe also a debt of gratitude to the patience and unremitting help of Professor Patricia Johnston, whose observations greatly improved my conclusions.
Heterology, or discourse on the Other, encompasses a number of theories dealing with unequal power positions in real life
as well as in literature. While feminist theory has made us aware of male authors creating women characters as the Other,
and while postcolonial theory reveals alterity in the images of ethnicity, a heterological approach to juvenile literature
examines the power balance between the adult author and the implied young audience. This balance is most tangibly manifested
in the relationship between the ostensibly adult narrative voice and the child focalizing character and its perception of
the fictive world. In other words, the way the adult narrator narrates the child reveals the degree of alterity — yet degree
only, since alterity is by definition inevitable in writing for children. Indeed, nowhere else are the power structures as
visible as in children’s literature, the refined instrument that has been for centuries used to educate, socialize and oppress
a particular social group. In this respect, children’s literature is a unique art and communication form, deliberately created
by those in power for the powerless. However, there are other factors besides age-related cognitive discrepancy in childrenh’s
literature, which may both enhance and diminish the effect of power imbalance. The present article will look into strategies
of alterity in classical and contemporary texts for young readers and consider the synergy of their impact on our perception.
Among such strategies, there is the use of specific genres (fantasy, adventure, dystopia), settings (Robinsonnade, Orientalism),
and characters (superheroes, anti-heroes, animals, monsters), as well as narrative devices such as voice, focalization and
subjectivity. The concepts of norm and normativity are central to heterological studies, and in the case of children’s literature,
the focus lies on adult normativity. Contemporary children’s literature has cautiously started subverting its own oppressive
function, as it can describe situations in which the established power structures are interrogated. Queer theory and carnival
theory prove especially helpful in investigating these issues.