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Abstract  

Properties of limestone related to SO2/SO3 reactivity were investigated. Limestone calcined under different conditions (temperature, time and with/without additives) yield calcines of distinctly different physical structures. The amount of pores and the size of the pores formed during calcination is important. The main purpose of the present work was to gain a better understanding and more reliable explanation of the temperature regime for gas desulphurization using Ca-based sorbents in atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors. Pore size, surface area and pore volume of each calcine were determined by mercury porosimetry and BET methods. At higher calcination temperature and during longer time, sintering became significant and the obtained calcine had a smaller internal surface area and thereby the average pore radius increased. The additives such as NaCl also accelerated sintering thus increasing the pore size. The measurements of porosity were supplemented by scanning electron microscopic observations employed for qualitative description of the pore structure. SEM micrographs are presented.

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Solid-gas phase transition processes of some triazines were studied from kinetic and thermodynamic viewpoint. DSC measurements and Clausius-Clapeyron equation were used to determine enthalpy values related to these processes. Model-fitting methods (based on Arrhenius, Šatava equations and Šestk-Berggren equations) and model-free methods (based on Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger equations) allow to hypothesis R2 mechanism. An attempt to determine the activation parameters (ΔH #, ΔG #, ΔS #) related to these processes was carried out. Accordance between the activation enthalpy values with those of activation energy obtained by means of kinetic methods and with the experimental (DSC) and calculated (Clausius-Clapeyron) enthalpy values was found.

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Separate stages of mathematical processing of thermogravimetric data, the difficulties most often encountered, and typical error sources are considered. A complex procedure of automatic acquisition and editing of experimental data, including calculation of effective kinetic parameters, is described and an appropriate algorithm for the 15 BCM-5 microcomputer is presented. The computer calculation of the kinetic parameters of the multistage thermal decomposition of a polyamide fibre is given as an example.

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Abstract  

Bone provides an important source of forensic evidence. The storage conditions of bone have been recognised as a factor in maintaining the integrity of such evidence. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) has been employed to examine the effects of storage environments and preparation methods on the structural properties of pig bones. A comparison of oven and freeze drying has been made to study the effect of storage conditions. A comparison has also been made of ground bone specimens with cut specimens. Freeze-dried hand ground specimens provided the most consistent results and, thus, this is the recommended method of preparation of bone specimens for TG analysis.

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