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Abstract  

Using a LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor, stop-flow mode, the power–time curves of Candida albicans growth at 37 °C affected by berberine were measured. The check experiments were studied based on agar cup method to observe the inhibitory diameter and serial dilution method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of berberine on C. albicans growth. By analyzing the quantitative thermogenic parameters taken from the power–time curves using correspondence analysis (CA), we could find that berberine at a low concentration (5.0 μg mL−1) began to inhibit the growth of C. albicans and at a high concentration (75.0 μg mL−1) completely inhibited C. albicans growth. The anti-fungal activity of berberine could also be expressed as half-inhibitory concentration IC50, i.e., 50% effective in this inhibition. The value of IC50 of berberine on C. albicans was 34.52 μg mL−1. The inhibitory diameters all exceeded 10 mm in test range and the MIC was 500 μg mL−1. Berberine had strong anti-fungal effect on C. albicans growth. This work provided an important idea of the combination of microcalorimetry and CA for the study on anti-fungal effect of berberine and other compounds. Compared with the agar cup method and serial dilution method, microcalorimetry not only offered a useful way for evaluating the bioactivity of drugs, but also provides more information about the microbial growth and all this information was significant for the synthesis and searching of antibiotics.

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In the present study, 16 women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) due to Candida albicans and Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata were followed for a period of 4 to 12 months, and 36 vaginal isolates were evaluted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Eleven women were infected by C. albicans and5 by C. glabrata.Three electrophoretic karyotypes of C. albicans and 3 of C. glabrata were identified throughout the follow-up. All patients but one was infected with the same karyotype of C. albicans or C. glabrata during the follow-up period.Two different karyotypes of C. glabrata were identified in one patient in the course of 12 months. The results confirmed the diversity of the karyotypes of C. albicans and C. glabrata causing vulvovaginitis and demonstrated the persistence of colonization with the same strain over different periods of time despite therapy (15/16 women).

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Thin-layer chromatography with microbiological detection (direct bioautography) of amphotericin B has never been reported. The combination of these methods can be used advantageously, especially when not only chemical identification of samples is required, but also when antifungal activity is of interest. In this paper a fast and easy-to-perform method is introduced in which major ( R F 0.46) and minor ( R F 0.31) components can be separated from amphotericin B, which itself is not a homogenous substance but mixture of polyenes. Thin-layer chromatography is performed on silica gel layers with chloroform-methanol-borate buffer 4:5:1 ( v/v ) as optimized mobile phase, and the microbiological activity of amphotericin B can be measured sensitively by direct bioautography. Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 9763) fungus strains were tested. Among the detection methods investigated, direct bioautography with Candida albicans proved to be the most sensitive, with a detection limit of 0.8 ng per spot. For densitometric evaluation of plates with (385 nm) ten times more substance is required, and with a UV lamp (366 nm) as much as 50 ng AmB per spot is needed to visualize the main component.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Nagendra Mishra, Tulika Prasad, Neeraj Sharma, Anurag Payasi, Rajendra Prasad, Dwijendra Gupta, and Randhir Singh

Pathogenic yeasts from the genus Candida can cause serious infection in humans particularly, in immunocompromised patients and are now recognized as major agents of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. In the recent years, there has been a marked increase in the incidence of treatment failures in candidiasis patients receiving long-term antifungal therapy, which has posed a serious problem in its successful use in chemotherapy. Candida cells acquire drug resistance (MDR) during the course of the treatment. The mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents have been elucidated in Candida species and can be mainly categorized as (i) changes in the cell wall or plasma membrane, which lead to impaired drug (azole) uptake; (ii) alterations in the affinity of the drug target Erg11p (lanosterol 14∝-demethylase) especially to azoles or in the cellular content of Erg11p due to target site mutation or overexpression of the ERG11 gene; and (iii) the efflux of drugs mediated by membrane transport proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, namely CDR1 and CDR2 or to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter, CaMDR1 . Many such manifestations are associated with the formation of Candida biofilms including those occurring on devices like indwelling intravascular catheters. Biofilm-associated Candida show uniform resistance to a wide spectrum of antifungal drugs. A combination of different resistance mechanisms is responsible for drug resistance in clinical isolates of Candida species.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: K. Kamotsay, A. Herczegh, F. Rozgonyi, István Nász, Z. Gintner, and J. Bánóczy

Candida albicans isolates obtained longitudinally in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. J Infect Dis 70 , 1566 (1994) Karyotyping of Candida albicans isolates obtained longitudinally in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis J

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Samaranayake, L.P., Geddes, D.A., Weetman, D.A., MacFarlane, T.W.: Growth and acid production of Candida albicans in carbohydrate supplemented media. Microbios 37 (148), 105–115 (1983). MacFarlane TW

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S165 Kenderessy, A. S., Kemeny, L., Dobozy, A.: Nitric oxide is involved in the Candida albicans killing activity of keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol Dev 107 , 452 (1996). (Abstract

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Éva Nemes-Nikodém, Béla Tamási, Noémi Mihalik, and Eszter Ostorházi

microorganisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic non-pregnant females: risk factors and rates of occurrence. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 2009, 15 (7), 670–679. Bertholf, M. E., Stafford, M. J.: Colonization of Candida albicans

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YUCE, A., YESOY, M. & YULUNG, N. (1996): The effect of various disinfectants and antiseptics on Candida albicans. Infeksion Dergisi -Turkish Journal of Infection , 10 (4), 361-363. The effect of various disinfectants and

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