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. Fusarium spp . contamination of wheat, maize, soybean, and pea grain in Croatia. Arhiv Higijenu Radai Toksikolgiju 60 : 435 – 442 . Lakhesar , D.P.S. , Backhouse , D. , Kristiansen

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. (1981): A simplified method for identifying Fusarium spp. occurring on wheat. Canad. J. Bot. 59, 1599–1609. Nirenberg H. I. A simplified method for identifying Fusarium spp

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Polišenská, I., Tvaružek, L. 2007. Relationships between deoxynivalenol content, presence of kernels infected by Fusarium spp. pathogens and visually scabby kernels in Czech wheat in 2003–2005. Cereal Res. Comm. 35 :1437

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19 Hudec, K., Rohacik, T. 2003. Fusarium spp. and Microdochium nivale infestation of asymptomatic wheat kernels in Slovakia. Cereal Research Communications 31 :415

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Glynn, N.C., Ray, R., Edwards, S.G., Hare, M.C., Parry, D.W., Barnett, C.J., Beck, J.J. 2007. Quantitative Fusarium spp. and Microdochium spp. PCR assays to evaluate seed treatments for the control of Fusarium seedling blight of wheat. J. Appl

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., Kastelein, P., de Vries, I., Kerényi, Z., van der Lee, T., Hesselink, T., Köhl, J., Kema, G. 2003. Major changes in Fusarium spp. in wheat in the Netherlands. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 109 :743–754. Kema G

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Elen, O.N., Abrahamsen, U., Overi, A., Razzaghian, M.J. 2000. Effect of agricultural measures on the occurrence of Fusarium spp. in cereals in Norway. In: Nirenberg, H.I. (ed), 6th European Fusarium Seminar in Berlin, pp. 105

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Saber Golkari, Jeannie Gilbert, Kirsten Slusarenko, W. Fernando, and Anita Brûlé-Babel

This study identified Fusarium spp. naturally occurring on field stubble. Throughout the 4 years of sampling, seven Fusarium species were isolated from crop stubble. In 2002 and 2003 only the stubble of foundation crops of wheat and oat were colonized by Fusarium spp; low levels were isolated from pea and canola stubble in 2005 and 2006. No consistent pattern of colonisation was observed, suggesting that airborne inoculum, susceptibility of wheat to FHB, and favorable environmental conditions are important factors in epidemics.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: M. I. Kiseleva, A. V. Ovsyankina, T. M. Kolomiets, N. S. Zhemchuzhina, and A. P. Glinushkin

Since 1995 the pathogens of genus Fusarium causing Root Rot, Snow Mold, Fusarium Head Blight of grain crops have been monitored in the Volga-Vyatka, Central, Central Chernozem and North Caucasian regions of the Russian Federation and in there were identified 15 Fusarium spp.: F. culmorum, F. heterosporum, F. sporotrichioides, F. oxysporum, F. nivale, F. graminearum, F. avenacеum, F. gibbosum, F. sambucinum, F. moniliforme, F. semitectum, F. poae, F. lateritium, F. solani, F. redolens. The high uniformity of Fusarium spp. has been revealed for the regions due to the susceptibility of crops to the soil-inhabiting micromycetes. Consistent long-term monitoring of the dynamics and frequency of occurrence of Fusarium spp. in a wide range of climatic areas has made it possible to characterize the state of the species of fungi in the regions and also to study their intraspecific and interspecific variability in toxicity and pathogenicity depended on biotic and abiotic factors. The prevalence of Fusarium spp. in the mycobiota has been determined by their plasticity and viability in the soil, on the weed roots and in the stubble of many crops and high competitive ability expressed pathogenicity and toxicity.

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In the present study, seven isolates of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria were used for seed treatment to suppress seedling diseases caused by fungi. Their effect on the seed germination and seedling vigour of watermelon was also studied. Among them INR-7 was able to inhibit a broad range of fungal species, GBO3 and IPC-11 were found to be effective against Fusarium spp. and Didymella bryoniae , while isolates SE-34 and T-4 were effective against Myrothecium species and also reduced the development of symptoms on the seedlings. Isolates GBO3, IPC-11 and INR-7 increased seed germination and seedling vigour to the greatest extent.

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