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-accession, was useful to understand the impact of EU accession on national identity. In particular, the fear of a rule of law crisis, or a rule of law backlash in these two countries ensured that there was data collection regarding legislative and constitutional

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In the early and mid-2000s, the prospect of EU accession and the global boom facilitated rapid economic recovery and boosted economic and institutional reforms in the Western Balkan region. The global financial crisis of 2007–2009 and the European crisis of 2010–2013 slowed the pace of economic growth and amplified high unemployment in the region. In addition, various unresolved legacies from past conflicts slowed the pace of reform and progress towards EU accession.

The European Commission’s February 2018 communication sets an indicative deadline (2025) for the two most advanced candidates – Serbia’s and Montenegro’s admission to the EU. This could incentivise all Western Balkan countries, including those candidates that have not yet started membership negotiations (Macedonia and Albania) and those waiting for candidate status (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo), to remove domestic political obstacles to EU accession, solve conflicts with neighbours, speed up reforms and accelerate economic growth.

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post-2007 EU accession era have actors and key players similar to those mentioned above, and if so, from which social strata? The broader context of the study is therefore the processes that emerged after 1989, but which are still at work today

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Bulgaria has complicated systems for food quality and food safety control. Responsibility for them is divided among several institutions. The control system is still overstaffed and insufficient co-ordination between its different parts prevail; the current control system does not meet the requirements of the new EU approach: traceability and transparency. In the last years the improvement of food quality and food safety systems in Bulgaria has been substantial - both from legislative and institutional point of view. In the process of accession Bulgarian legislation in this sphere already complies with EU regulation. Origin-labeled products is considered as an important element of food quality and food safety control systems. The legislation for organic farming, quality wines and alcoholic drinks is almost fully harmonised with the EU requirements. Important improvement has been made also with the adoption of ordinance for TSG.</o:p>

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Almost each of the political forces and the great majority of the public saw no alternative to Euro-Atlantic integration, that is, accession to NATO and the EC (after 1992 the EU) when Hungary regained its independence in 1990. Membership in both organizations had a number of internal and external implications too. Budapest had to introduce sweeping reforms in practically all walks of life. Thus, for instance, NATO-membership required the establishment of a parliamentary democracy, a functioning market economy, and the observance of civil and human rights. At the same time, Hungary had to sign so-called basic treaties with three of its neighbors in which it again committed itself to peaceful relations and the renunciation of any attempt to regain territories it had lost to the countries affected after the First and the Second World Wars. EU-membership needed even more extensive restructuring of the various Hungarian institutions from law enforcement through finances to social services. In addition, Budapest expected that one of the major dilemmas of reconciling the so-called “Hungarian-Hungarian” question with the “good neighbor” policy would be settled within the framework of European integration. The expectations on behalf of the two sides have only been partially realized yet. Thus, Hungary consistently spends much less on defense than the required level within the Atlantic Alliance; Budapest has been trying to compensate with a relative prominent presence in foreign missions. As for the EU, the threat of a “second class membership” has not disappeared; in fact, after the beginning of the economic recession in 2008 it has even become a more realistic perspective; in reality, Hungary has had to accept a relative loss of power even in Central and Eastern Europe. However, Hungary has a vested interest in a “Strong Europe” (this was the official slogan of Hungary’s EU-Presidency during the first six months of 2011) in which “more Europe” should not exclude the country’s closer relations with other regions in the world.

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
Ivan Vujačić
,
Jelica Petrović-Vujačić
,
Svetozar Tanasković
, and
Marko Miljković

the countries that were on the path to the EU accession (at that point in time) from other transition economies. A broad study ( Rapacki – Prochniak 2009 ) that looks into the convergence among 27 transition countries over the period of 1990–2005 shows

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Since EU accession Hungary is developing its waste management sector to meet EU criteria, but EU requirements for selective collection has been changed last year by accepting the new waste framework directive. Up to the very date 13 waste management projects were implemented and 12 other projects are under implementation in Hungary. This research is focused on the resource efficiency of the recycling potential of these projects and found that the already implemented projects need further significant selective collection infrastructure development either to meet new waste framework directive criteria or to utilize material recycling facility capacity already built in these projects.

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
Zoltán Ádám
,
László Csaba
,
András Bakács
, and
Zoltán Pogátsa

István Csillag - Péter Mihályi: Kettős kötés: A stabilizáció és a reformok 18 hónapja [Double Bandage: The 18 Months of Stabilisation and Reforms] (Budapest: Globális Tudás Alapítvány, 2006, 144 pp.) Reviewed by Zoltán Ádám; Marco Buti - Daniele Franco: Fiscal Policy in Economic and Monetary Union. Theory, Evidence and Institutions (Cheltenham/UK - Northampton/MA/USA: Edward Elgar Publishing Co., 2005, 320 pp.) Reviewed by László Csaba; Piotr Jaworski - Tomasz Mickiewicz (eds): Polish EU Accession in Comparative Perspective: Macroeconomics, Finance and the Government (School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College of London, 2006, 171 pp.) Reviewed by András Bakács; Is FDI Based R&D Really Growing in Developing Countries? The World Investment Report 2005. Reviewed by Zoltán Pogátsa

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas
,
Raimundas Kirvaitis
, and
Eleonora Dagienė

Abstract

The article focuses on evolution of scientific publications released in the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) and refers to international databases that contain scientific papers produced over the last 20 years of independence. The countries share the same history of restoration of independence after 40 years of occupation. The article shall specifically focus on the period of post EU accession in 2004. It will discuss the contribution of Kaunas University of Technology, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Riga Technical University and Tallinn University of Technology to the total number of publications in these countries. The investigation was based on databases of Thomson Reuters Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators and Journal Citation Report. Additionally, it employed the Scimago ranking system based on Scopus database. Data analysis also involved similar indices that provide the number of papers and their citation results as well as the average number of citations per paper.

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The article analyses patterns and country-specific determinants of Visegrad Countries’ agri-food trade with the European Union. Literature focusing on the country-specific determinants of vertical and horizontal intra-industry trade is rather limited and those analysing agricultural (or agri-food) trade are extremely rare. Therefore, the paper seeks to contribute to the literature by covering the latest theories and data available on the topic to provide up to date results and suggestions. Moreover, it seeks to identify the determinants of horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade of the Visegrad Countries after EU accession. According to the results determinants of horizontal and vertical intra-industry differ and suggest that economic size is positively, while distance is negatively related to both sides of intra-industry trade. However, the relationship between vertical intra-industry trade and differences in factor endowments as well as foreign direct investment is ambiguous.

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