This five-layered model consisting of 180 neurons is aimed at simulating some elementary functions of primary visual cortex of mammals in form detection. Its main achievements are: 1. Detection of points, lines, simple geometric figures in the V1 2. Abstraction of 19 different qualities of geometric figures 3. Simulation and rational explanation of processing of peripheral stimuli in the V1, explanation of mechanism of origin of visual ERPs, including P300 wave 4. Simulation and explanation of the nature and build up of the cognitive function within V1 and its possible relation to long-term memory 5. The model is based partly on Hebb-type synapses, illustrates the role of neuronal assemblies, sheds light on the functional relationship of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, in their conformity with special tasks of different cortical layers.
The scavenging of UO22+ using 4-sulfonic calixarene in the presence of a strong adsorbent was studied as a function of pH. The adsorbent selected
was goethite because of its strong affinity for UO22+ and its abundance in natural soils. In order to understand the underlying chemistry of the scavenging process, the adsorption
of UO22+ and 4-sulfonic calixarene onto goethite, respectively, and the extraction of adsorbed UO22+ from goethite surface were modeled using the triple-layer model. The model well explained the pH dependence of the adsorption
and extraction processes. This work showed that maximum extraction was obtained around pH 10.5 in the presence of 12g/l goethite
in the case of a 1:3TU(VI):Tcalixareneratio.
Authors:J. Jung, S. Hyun, J. Lee, Y. Cho, and P. Hahn
The prediction of the adsorption behavior of natural composite materials was studied by a single mineral approach. The adsorption
of U(VI) on single minerals such as goethite, hematite, kaolinite and quartz was fully modeled using the diffuse-layer model
in various experimental conditions. A quasi-thermodynamic database of surface complexation constants for single minerals was
established in a consistent manner. In a preliminary work, the adsorption of a synthetic mixture of goethite and kaolinite
was simulated using the model established for a single mineral system. The competitive adsorption of U(VI) between goethite
and kaolinite can be well explained by the model. The adsorption behavior of natural composite materials taken from the Koongarra
uranium deposit (Australia) was predicted in a similar manner. In comparison with the synthetic mixture, the prediction was
less successful in the acidic pH range. However, the model predicted well the adsorption behavior in the neutral to alkaline
pH range. Furthermore, the model reasonably explained the role of iron oxide minerals in the adsorption of U(VI) on natural
U(VI) sorption on kaolinite was studied as functions of contact time, pH, U(VI) concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio (m/V) by using a batch experimental method. The effects of sulfate and phosphate on U(VI) sorption were also investigated. It
was found that the sorption kinetics of U(VI) can be described by a pseudo-second-order model. Potentiometric titrations at
variable ionic strengths indicated that the titration curves of kaolinite were not sensitive to ionic strength, and that the
pH of the zero net proton charge (pHPZNPC) was at 6.9. The sorption of U(VI) on kaolinite increased with pH up to 6.5 and reached a plateau at pH >6.5. The presence
of phosphate strongly increased U(VI) sorption especially at pH <5.5, which may be due to formation of ternary surface complexes
involving phosphate. In contrast, the presence of sulfate did not cause any apparent effect on U(VI) sorption. A double layer
model was used to interpret both results of potentiometric titrations and U(VI) sorption on kaolinite.
Authors:Songsheng Lu, Zhiqiang Guo, Caicai Zhang, and Shouwei Zhang
MX-80 bentonite was characterized by XRD and FTIR in detail. The sorption of Th(IV) on MX-80 bentonite was studied as a function
of pH and ionic strength in the presence and absence of humic acid/fulvic acid. The results indicate that the sorption of
Th(IV) on MX-80 bentonite increases from 0 to 95% at pH range of 0–4, and then maintains high level with increasing pH values.
The sorption of Th(IV) on bentonite decreases with increasing ionic strength. The diffusion layer model (DLM) is applied to
simulate the sorption of Th(IV) with the aid of FITEQL 3.1 mode. The species of Th(IV) adsorbed on bare MX-80 bentonite are
consisted of “strong” species
at pH > 4. Similar species of Th(IV) adsorbed on FA bound MX-80 bentonite are observed as on FA bound MX-80 bentonite. The
sorption isotherm is simulated by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) models, respectively. The sorption mechanism
of Th(IV) on MX-80 bentonite is discussed in detail.
Authors:Hajnalka Breuer, Ferenc Ács, Kálmán Rajkai, and Ákos Horváth
Laza B., 2010. A planetáris határréteg és a talaj hidrofizikai tulajdonságai közötti kapcsolat vizsgálata az MM5 modellel. BSc szakdolgozat. Budapest.
Mahrt, L. & Pan, H. L., 1984. A two-layermodel of soil hydrology. Bound
Authors:Haiying Liu, Xinming Qian, Zhiming Du, Ping Huang, and Zhenyi Liu
) Sphere fireworks and crackers with two or more kinds of propellants which are distributed in different layers (called layermodel).
Thermal explosion model of sphere fireworks and crackers with a kind of propellant
Multiple-layerModel of Market-oriented Organizational Culture: Measurement Issues and Performance Outcomes. Journal of Marketing Research , 37 : 449-463.
A Multiple-layerModel of Market-oriented Organizational Culture
Authors:E. Horváth, J. Kristóf, R. Kurdi, É. Makó, and V. Khunová
layermodel available in the literature [ 11 ]. The optimal geometry for a single urea molecule in the interlayer space is shown in Fig. 9a with the indication of the atomic distances. This model is in harmony with the supposition that the conjugation