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La proibizione dei bacchanalia tra la Magna Grecia e l'Etruria

Il Senatus Consultum de Bacchanalibus di Tiriolo e il Trono delle Pantere di Bolsena

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: Vincenzo Elio Junior Macchione and Davide Mastroianni

Summary

In the Greek world, the celebrations of Dionysus were different: the Rural Dionysia and the City Dionysia, the Lenee, the Antestèrie, the Oscofòrie, the Ascalia and the Bacchanalia. During the Bacchanalia, women ran, danced and screamed in the woods, and fell prey to Dionysian inebriation. In 186 BC, the Roman Senate issued a decree that limited the cult of Bacchus Dionysus in Rome and in Italy, because of sexual abuses (see Livy, Ab Urbe condita 39. 8 – 39. 18). The diffusion of Bacchanalia was a risk for people and for the dignitas of Rome. In 1640 in Tiriolo, Calabria, during the excavation for the foundations of the so-called Palazzo Cicala, a bronze inscription and fragments of columns were found; the inscription had the original text of Senatus Consultum de Bacchanalibus with which, in 186 BC, the Roman Senate forbade the Bacchanalia. In Latium, during the excavation of the so-called Domus delle Pitture in Bolsena, directed by the École Française de Rome, between 1964 and 1982, a fragment of a throne's base and a cherub's leg were found in a layer of ashes in an underground room. Another 150 pieces of the throne, including ribbons and fragments of a panther head, were recovered in a specific spot of the room. Fragments, carefully restored and reassembled, compose an object called Trono delle Pantere of Bolsena, datable between the end of the 3rd century BC and the early years of the 2nd century BC. The left and rear sides are better preserved. The first represents a panther sitting on a throne with a cherub on his knees while it grabs at the ears of beast; the rear side represents a pattern with wings blocked by ribbons. The front side is completely destroyed. The throne has different sets of problems on its religious meaning and its decoration, where the Dionysiac theme is clear. The panther, the cherubs and the ribbons recall the Dionysus sphere, during which he was hidden inside a cave. Indeed, the underground room of Bolsena was appropriated to Bacchanalia. This paper intends to link Tiriolo and Bolsena, through the specific cases of two cities; in the first we have a proof of the enforcement of the law in 186 BC, and in the second we have an evidence of its application, with the destruction of a throne and of a Bacchic shrine.

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human sacrifice, even when discussing the events of 216 BC and 114/13 BC. Livy, Valerius Maximus, Frontinus, Plutarch, Florus, Aurelius Victor, and others extolled heroes who sacrificed their lives for Rome and condemn foreign peoples for

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Abstract

The Beatrice Psalter (Wolfenbüttel, HAB, Cod. Guelf. 39 Aug. 4º) belongs to the problematic part of the Corvina library, to pieces that are hard to date or localize as regards place of origin. As Matthias Corvinus's coat of arms on the cover proves, the binding was made for the Hungarian king, yet it deviates in character from the typical gilded leather Covina bindings and is unique in the history of 15th century Italian manuscript bindings. There is a single analogous Corvina, the Bible once bound for Matthias (Erlangen, Universitätsbibliothek, Ms. 6). The presently accepted view on the binding is based on the researches of Tommaro de Marinis and Antony Hobbson. De Marinis published a Livy manuscript once in the Aragonese royal library of Naples whose binding, or its central part, is identical with the binding of the Beatrice Psalter. In de Marinis's view the bindings of both manuscripts are of Neapolitan origin. Probing deeper, Hobbson associates the origin of the two manuscripts with the circles of Giovanni d'Aragona, and identifies their bookbinder as Felice Feliciano. He names Rome as the location where the binding was made.

Most probably, neither researcher ascribed any significance to the edges of the Psalter, which was described by earlier Hungarian research as gilded and decorated in colour, without being subjected to more thorough analysis. Thus, the Psalter edges were not identified with the Buda type of the gilt and painted edges, although they conform to this types, its constituents being easily recognized among the motifs of similar pieces. This fact alone may ascribe great probability to the hypothesis that the binding of the Psalter was not made in Naples or Rome but in Buda. This does not necessarily contradict Hobbson's results, for Felice Feliciano stayed in Hungary from autumn 1479 to summer 1480 accompanying Giovanni d'Aragona.

The hypothesis is supported by other specificities of the manuscript, too. As regards the quality of the parchment, the size, and the person of the scribe, the Psalter is part of a triple group within the Corvinae. The Plato in El Escorial (G. III. 3.), the Aristeas manuscript in Munich (BSB, Clm 627) and the Beatrice Psalter are three small manuscripts of similar size, all three written on rougher parchment than the Italian type and the scribe of all three was Gundisalvus Hispanus, who stayed in Italy in the mid-1470s until 1478 when he was appointed bishop of Barcelona. Albina de la Mare already asked: Are we to presume that Gundisalvus visited Buda, too? For the time being, this cannot be verified. It is, however, thought-provoking that the calendar taking up the first leaves of the Psalter is of a Hungarian, more precisely a Zagreb type with minor Pauline features, and the litany at the end of the manuscript also contains the major Hungarian saints. An additional coincidence is that the Plato in El Escorial and the Aristeas in Munich are proven to have been illuminated in Buda around 1480. On the basis of their style they belong to the circle of the manuscript decorated for Domokos Kálmáncsehi around that time. As for the inner figural initials of the Psalter, the Buda origin is highly likely, too. The one-line initial capital letters are very close to those in the Kálmáncsehi breviary (Budapest, OSzK, cod. Lat. 446).

The title-page of the manuscript is in Florentine style, but the attribution is uncertain. Earlier the name of Francesco Antonio del Cherico, more recently Francesco Rosselli and the Master of the Medici Iliad are mentioned. Rosselli also stayed in Buda in 1478/79–80, but in my view the leading illuminator of the title-page was not he but a better painter who might be identical with the leading artist involved in the Medici Iliad. The latter, however, probably never visited Buda.

To sum up: the writing of the Psalter may support a Buda origin, but this is questioned by the presumable illumination of the title-page in Florence. The inner part of the manuscript, however, was most certainly decorated in Buda, and on the basis of the specificities of the edges and other features of the binding, it must be seen verified that the rare binding was made in Buda. The latter must have been an inspiring, model example for the elaboration of the gilded leather bindings of Matthias's corvinae. The available data suggest that it can be dated to the very end of the 1470s or around 1480. The phases of the making of the Psalter shed light on the activity of the Buda workshop around 1480s, revealing a surprising complexity and exuberant activity there.

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current corpus. In contrast, the synthetic active pluperfect was mostly used for anterior meaning 39 but twice out of 17 times also to express resultative meaning. 40 This is consistent with the data I have been gathering from Livy’s narrative. 6

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corresponds to the Latin sacer esto . In fact, this law was reintroduced in 449, after the Decemvirate, and Livy speaks of caput Iovi sacrum (“head consecrated to Jupiter”) and reports it with the following words: aliam

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Knell, H. : Die Nike von Samothrake: Typus, Form, Bedeutung und Wirkungsgeschichte eines rhodischen Sieges-Anathems im Kabirenheiligtum von Samothrake . Darmstadt 1995, here 82–101. 6 Livy, Ab urbe

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the elemental gods of the Universe and if they fail to the terms of the treaty or oath, they risk and face total destruction.The Celts, like the Achaean and Trojan heroes of Homer or the old Italic warriors mentioned by Livy, swore their oaths orally

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: Arsacids (n. 8) 129–130; BING–SIEVERS (n. 1). 16 Justin 38. 10. 8, 11; Justin Prol . 39; Diod. 34/35. 17. 2; Jos. Ant . 13. 253, 268, 271; Eus. Chron . (Smith ed.) 255, 257; Hieron. Chron . 163.1; Livy Epit . 60. 11. See ASSAR, G. R. F.: A Revised

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departs from Misenum to save the citizens in peril, and to examine the unknown natural phenomenon at the same time. Pliny the Younger stays in Misenum with his mother, to study Livy’s historical work (6. 20. 5: posco librum Titi Livi ). The Elder’s life

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Sixth- and Seventh-Century Elephant Ivory Finds from the Carpathian Basin •

The Sources, Circulation and Value of Ivory in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Elefántcsonttárgyak A 6–7. Századi Kárpát-Medencében

Az Elefántcsont Forrása, Forgalma És Értéke A Késő Ókorban És A Kora Középkorban
Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors: Ádám Bollók and István Koncz

.) 1966 Expositio totius mundi et gentium. Introduction, texte critique, traduction, notes commentarie . Sources Chrétiennes 124 . Paris . Sage , Evan T . (ed. and transl.) 1984 Livy with an English Translation in Fourteen Volumes, Vol. X: Books

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