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sensitive to clindamycin on disk diffusion testing [ 10 , 11 ]. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular detection of MLSB resistance genes ( ermA, ermB, ermC, mecA , and msrA ) and antibiotic resistance profiles in MRSA strains isolated from

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Branislav Kureljušić, Božidar Savić, Vesna Milićević, Nemanja Jezdimirović, Oliver Radanović, Jadranka Žutić, and Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

vessels In eight ear tissue scraping samples, S. aureus (MRSA strain), S. hyicus and Streptococcus group C were isolated. In two samples only S. hyicus was detected. All ear tissue scraping samples tested positive for the T. denticola / T. putidum

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Shadi Shahsavan, Leila Jabalameli, Parviz Maleknejad, Marzieh Aligholi, Hossein Imaneini, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Shahnaz Halimi, Morovat Taherikalani, Babak Khoramian, Mohammad Eslampour, Mohammad Feizabadi, and Mohammad Emaneini

Marchese, A., Gualco, L., Maioli, E., Debbia, E.: Molecular analysis and susceptibility patterns of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains circulating in the community in the Ligurian area, a northern region of Italy: Emergence of USA

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Hagen Frickmann, Thomas Köller, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Klaus-Peter Ebert, Martin Müller, Werner Wenzel, Renate Gatzer, Ulrich Schotte, Alfred Binder, Romy Skusa, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski, Christian Rückert, and Bernd Kreikemeyer

(Supplementary material 1). The spa typing for MRSA suggested clonal identity of two nonnosocomial MRSA strains from Syrian patient 5 from the Bundeswehr hospital Hamburg (HBG-S5) and Syrian patient 6 from the Bundeswehr hospital Westerstede (WEST-S6) (both t

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Some Staphylococcus species are frequently recognized as etiological agents of many animal and human opportunistic infections. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of Eugenia jambolanum and Eugenia uniflora against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus — MRSA strain. In this study, the ethanol extracts of Eugenia jambolanum L., Eugenia uniflora L. and chlorpromazine were tested for their antimicrobial activity alone or in combination with aminoglycosides against an MRSA strain using microdilution method. Synergism between both extracts and all aminoglycosides assayed was demonstrated, except E. jambolanum and tobramycin. In the same form, synergism was observed between chlorpromazine and kanamicin, neomycin and tobramicin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. It is therefore suggested that extracts from E. uniflora L. and E. jambolanum L. could be used as a source of plant derived natural products to modify antibiotic activity of aminoglycosides.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Hagen Frickmann, Andreas Hahn, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Denise Dekker, Rebecca Hinz, Volker Micheel, Benedikt Hogan, Jürgen May, and Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy

Direct growth on blood and screening agar for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at a tropical surveillance site was compared with broth enrichment and subsequent growth on selective MRSA agar after international sample transport.

In Madagascar, 1548 swabs from an MRSA surveillance study were assessed for growth on Columbia blood agar enriched with 5% sheep blood and MRSA screening agar at the surveillance site with subsequent cold storage of the samples and shipment to Germany. In Germany, 1541 shipped samples were analyzed by non-selective broth enrichment with subsequent culture on MRSA selective agar.

A total of 28 MRSA isolates were detected. Of these, 20 strains were isolated from direct culture on blood and MRSA screening agars at the surveillance site, 24 MRSA strains were isolated using the broth enrichment method in Germany, and 16 MRSA strains were identified by both approaches.

In spite of the observed die-off of individual strains due to long-term storage and transport, broth enrichment with subsequent screening on MRSA selective agar after international sample shipment led to comparable sensitivity of MRSA detection like streaking on blood and MRSA agar at the tropical surveillance site.

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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes serious nosocomial and community acquired infections. Resistance to methicillin is mediated by the mecA gene, which is inserted in a mobile genetic element called staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). We determined the SCCmec types, the occurrence of genes encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst), exfoliative toxin (eta, etb), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) as well as antibiotic susceptibility of these isolates. Among 65 hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) strains, SCCmec types II, III and IV were identified. Type III SCCmec was the most prevalent (62%), followed by mec types II (24%) and IV (14%). Four community acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains carried SCCmec type IV and were pvl-positive. The most prevalent gene among HA-MRSA was pvl. The toxic shock syndrome toxin and exfoliative toxin genes were found only in hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The results of this study demonstrate that the SCCmec type III is predominant among strains recovered from hospitalized patients with infections and that these strains were resistant to many antibiotics used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections.

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The distribution of 3497 Staphylococcus aureus strains according to methicillin resistance, specimens, departmental profession and antibiotic resistance patterns was analysed. The strains were cultured from the patients of the Clinical Center of Skopje, Macedonia, between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2004. The majority of the isolates was obtained from suppurated wounds (28.5%), nares (21%), intratracheal tubes (13%) and blood cultures (11.8%). Overall 1100 (31.4%) of the isolates was methicillin-resistant with 1 µg oxacillin disc. Of these 35.5%, 30.5% and 10.4% were cultured from wounds, intratracheal tubes and blood samples, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA strains was 78.6%, 75%, 44.2% and 37.3% in specimens of ICU, Coma Center, General Surgery and Haematology patients. There were extremely big differences in the frequency of MRSA between departments with particular specialisation. The 2397 MSSA isolates belonged to practically one antibiotic resistance pattern characterised with penicillin resistance and susceptibility to other antistaphylococcal drugs. The 1100 MRSA isolates distributed to four antibiotic resistance patterns on the basis of their resistance to oxacillin, penicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, azithromycin, clindamycin, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim+sulphamethoxasole, vancomycin and teicoplanin. All the MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant but sensitive to glycopeptides.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Boris Habrun, Ivana Račić, Relja Beck, Ana Budimir, Miroslav Benić, Gordan Kompes, Silvio Špičić, and Željko Cvetnić

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have emerged worldwide and have become resistant to a variety of antibiotics. MRSA colonisation in pigs was first reported from the Netherlands in 2005, where pigs were implicated as a source of human MRSA infections (Voss et al., 2005). This paper presents the first report on the presence of MRSA on large pig breeding farms in Croatia, together with the determination of the mecA gene, the results of spa typing and susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. Dust samples (7–11 per farm) were collected from eight large pig farms in Croatia. Of the total 68 swabs, the mecA gene was detected in 24 isolates growing on the MRSA agar. All isolates were resistant to oxacillin, tetracycline and streptomycin, and susceptible only to vancomycin, while 92% of the strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Genotyping of the MRSA strains was performed by spa typing, and revealed t011 (n = 17), t034 (n = 5) and t1451 (n = 2). The results presented here predict that MRSA is present on a large number of pig farms in Croatia.

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With a view to estimating the prevalence and resistance patterns of CA-MRSA in one region of Serbia, we performed an analysis of MRSA isolates from healthy people and hospitalised patients. The detection of CA-MRSA was carried out by SCCmec typing. In MRSA isolates from hospitalised patients SCCmec types IV and V were found in 76% of the strains. Similar percentage (80%) of CA-MRSA genotypes was present in healthy people. SCCmec type V harbouring MRSA was the most successful clone. Higher prevalence of type V in hospitalised patients to that in healthy people (70% vs 54%) may indicate nosocomial transmissions in at least some hospital units. All MRSA strains from hospitalised patients were resistant to one or more non-β-lactam antibiotics while 52% were multi-resistant. In isolates from healthy people, 16% were sensitive to all non-β-lactam antibiotics and 40% were multi-resistant. Similar percentage of multi-resistant CA- and HA-genotypes occurred in a particular environment (53% vs 50% in hospitalised patients, and 37.5% vs 37.5% in healthy people) indicating selective pressure of antibiotics as a leading force conferring antibiotic resistance. High prevalence of CA-MRSA and high resistance rate both in hospitals and the community suggest that this pathogen has been present in the Pomoravlje Region, central Serbia for years.

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