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Scientometrics
Authors: Aashish Mehta, Patrick Herron, Yasuyuki Motoyama, Richard Appelbaum, and Timothy Lenoir

Abstract

The share of nanotechnology publications involving authors from more than one country more than doubled in the 1990s, but then fell again until 2004, before recovering somewhat during the latter years of the decade. Meanwhile, the share of nanotechnology papers involving at least one Chinese author increased substantially over the last two decades. Papers involving Chinese authors are far less likely to be internationally co-authored than papers involving authors from other countries. Nonetheless, this appears to be changing as Chinese nanotechnology research becomes more advanced. An arithmetic decomposition confirms that China's growing share of such research accounts, in large part, for the observed stagnation of international collaboration. Thus two aspects of the globalization of science can work in opposing directions: diffusion to initially less scientifically advanced countries can depress international collaboration rates, while at the same time scientific advances in such countries can reverse this trend. We find that the growth of China's scientific community explains some, but not all of the dynamics of China's international collaboration rate. We therefore provide an institutional account of these dynamics, drawing on Stichweh's [Social Science information 35(2):327–340, 1996] original paper on international scientific collaboration, which, in examining the interrelated development of national and international scientific networks, predicts a transitional phase during which science becomes a more national enterprise, followed by a phase marked by accelerating international collaboration. Validating the application of this approach, we show that Stichweh's predictions, based on European scientific communities in the 18th and 19th centuries, seem to apply to the Chinese scientific community in the 21st century.

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The aim of this paper is to identify the differences in the determinants of successful transition (understood as the creation of a new development path) between the eastern and the western EU Member States between 1994 and 2014 and elaborate assumptions for a strategy of constructing regional advantage for them at the NUTS2 level. We find that the regional transition requires individual approaches to using comparative advantage at the beginning of the process and then competing with specific advantages that can be consciously constructed throughout the process. Therefore, we hypothesise that a successful transition requires constructing regional advantages based on the knowledge-related factors, leading to specialisation in the knowledge-intensive industries. Furthermore, we state that the way of constructing such advantages differs across the regions. All of our hypotheses were confirmed. Both groups of regions had different comparative advantages at the beginning of the period and constructed competitive advantage based on related knowledge-intensive industries, leading to their specialisation. Interestingly, although the process of building regional advantage was similar, the factors used to create it were different, had a different impact on GDP growth and led to a different specialisation.

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China is the second biggest trading nation in the world — number one as trade exporter and number two as trade importer. Behind the USA, China has the second strongest economy with a gross domestic product of almost 5 trillion USD in 2009. Despite the global financial crisis the Chinese economy was and is still drastically growing with three main focus areas: increase in labor costs; increasing demand for qualified labor; and a high grade of technology. Linked to the future 12th five-year-plan, China is going to spend 1.5 billion dollars in key-technologies like nuclear power, high speed railway systems, aerospace, energy efficiency, environmental friendly technologies, biotechnologies and information technology. China is trying to change its status from distributor to a leading high-tech provider with high potential. This implicitly means a higher consumption of natural resources and more highly qualified employees. However, the shortage of natural resources poses a great question. Prognoses say that we will need two Earths to cover our steadily rising resource consumption in 2030. To provide this, the economy has to work much more efficiently and regarding climate and resource protection even a total change is necessary. Due to this, Europe’s and China’s future will need a common economic and ecologic strategy to fulfill international requirements of sustainable growth within balanced natural circumstances.

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Abstract

This article analyzes the relationship between private and social value of patents, comparing discrete and cumulative innovation. Indicators of the social value of patents are known to be less correlated with measures of private value in technological fields where innovation is more cumulative. We test whether this is because the link between private and social value is weaker, or because the indicators are less informative of the underlying concepts of value. Furthermore we analyze whether these differences between technological fields are really due to cumulativeness. We observe cumulative innovation by making use of databases of patents declared essential for technological standards. Using factor analysis and a set of patent quality indicators, we test the relevance of social value for predicting the private value of a patent measured by renewal and litigation. Whereas we establish a robust and significant link for discrete technologies; neither common factors nor any indicator of social value allows predicting the private value of essential, very cumulative patents. Nevertheless, this result cannot be generalized to whole technological classes identified as “complex” by the literature.

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The role of spatial proximity to innovation inputs (such as industrial R&D or academic research) in technological change has been widely studied in the economics literature. However, most of the papers in this research area are based on data for technologically advanced countries such as the US and parts of the EU. During transition recently accessed countries of Central Europe have undergone a dramatic restructuring process that significantly affected their systems of innovation: R&D expenditures, academic research and patenting activity have declined. According to some research results FDI constituted the most significant drive of technological change during the 1990s. Is there any role of spatially mediated knowledge spillovers in innovation in these countries? To what extent regional systems of innovation have started to develop in Central European new EU member countries? These questions have rarely been raised in the relevant literature. Using regional data this paper adopts econometric modelling techniques commonly applied in innovation research to study the role of localised knowledge inputs in technological change in Hungary.

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Abstract

This article examines the incentive structure underlying information transfers received by the three key players of the Triple Helix paradigm: universities, industry, and government research institutes (GRIs). For Korea and Taiwan, which are the cases under analysis here, such an empirical examination has not yet been conducted on a quantitative level. Using a unique dataset of survey responses from a maximum of 325 researchers based in Korean and Taiwanese universities, industry, and GRIs, this article shows that there are some significant differences between and within countries. Most importantly, policy interventions to promote university-industry-GRI interactions impact the degree to which specific information transfers are considered useful. In Korea, formal transfers are emphasized, while both formal and, in particular, informal transfers are emphasized in Taiwan.

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Abstract

Nanosciences and nanotechnologies are considered important for the development of science, technology and innovation, and the study of their characters can be a great help to the decisions of policy makers and of practitioners. This work is centred on the issue of the time relations between science and technology/innovation, and in particular on the speed of transfer of science-generated knowledge towards its exploitation in patenting. A methodology based on patent citations is used in order to measure the time lag between cited journal articles and citing patent, and thus the time proximity between the two steps. Keywords regarding nanotechnology/nanoscience items are searched in order to collect data useful for the analysis. Collateral measures, performed on another class of materials and on the spatial origin of citing/cited documents, help giving evidence of the peculiarity of the behaviour and on its nature. The most representative time lag between production of scientific knowledge and its technological exploitation appears being around 3–4 years.

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We develop a model of scientific creativity and test it in the field of rare diseases. Our model is based on the results of an in-depth case study of the Rett Syndrome. Archival analysis, bibliometric techniques and expert surveys are combined with network analysis to identify the most creative scientists. First, we compare alternative measures of generative and combinatorial creativity. Then, we generalize our results in a stochastic model of socio-semantic network evolution. The model predictions are tested with an extended set of rare diseases. We find that new scientific collaborations among experts in a field enhance combinatorial creativity. Instead, high entry rates of novices are negatively related to generative creativity. By expanding the set of useful concepts, creative scientists gain in centrality. At the same time, by increasing their centrality in the scientific community, scientists can replicate and generalize their results, thus contributing to a scientific paradigm.

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Abstract

This paper provides a first-ever look at differences of centrality scores (i.e., networks) over time and across research specializations in Korea. This is a much needed development, given the variance which is effectively ignored when Science Citation Index (SCI) publications are aggregated. Three quantitative tests are provided—OLS, two sample t-tests, and unit-root tests—to establish the patterns of centrality scores across Korea over time. The unit-root test is particularly important, as it helps identify patterns of convergence in each region's centrality scores. For all other geographic regions besides Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Daejeon, there appears to be little promise—at least in the immediate future—of being network hubs. For these top three regions, though, there is a pattern of convergence in three-quarters of all research specializations, which we attribute in part to policies in the mid- and late-1990s.

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Abstract  

The interactions between MoO3 and Sb2O3 or α-Sb2O4 taking place in the solid state in air during high-temperature as well as mechanochemical treatments have been investigated. The high-energy ball milling of MoO3 with Sb2O3 converts α-Sb2O3 to β-Sb2O3 and leads to formation of Sb2MoO6 and Sb4Mo10O31 phases. They are the final products of thermal synthesis in an inert atmosphere but not in air. The solid solution of MoO3 in β-Sb2O4 was obtained in high-temperature reaction of MoO3 with Sb2O3 or α-Sb2O4 as well as by milling of mixture MoO3/α-Sb2O4 for 14 h. The milling resulted in higher than 3 mol% solubility of MoO3 in β-Sb2O4. The constructed phase diagram of MoO3–α-Sb2O4 system is presented.

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