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Our knowledge on the presence of mycotoxin producing fungi and mycotoxins in food commodities in the last decade in Hungary has been summarized in this review. Among the mycotoxin producing fungi, detailed data are available for Fusarium species in cereals, and mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species in different food commodities including coffee, raisins and spices. Ochratoxin concentrations above the tolerable limit have mostly been detected in imported products such as peanuts and coffee. Ochratoxin levels close to the tolerable limit have been observed in Hungarian red peppers. Besides, ochratoxin A has also been detected in Hungarian wine, beer and raisins. Aflatoxins are usually detected in considerable quantities only in imported agricultural products in Hungary, while patulin concentrations were usually below the allowable limit in Hungarian apple juice concentrates. In the future, continuous sampling and analysis of foods and feeds are required to ensure consumer safety in Hungary.

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An amperometric biosensor for the detection of organophosphorus and carbamate type pesticides was developed. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme (electric eel) was immobilized in a thin-layer enzyme cell, and acetylthiocholine chloride (AcTCh) was used as substrate. Amperometric detection with glassy carbon electrode was performed in a stopped-flow FIA system. The inhibition effect of dichlorvos (DDVP), carbofuran, methomyl, and pirimicarb were examined: the linear measuring ranges were 0.001–0.1 μmol l−1, 0.001–0.1 μmol l−1, 0.2-1 μmol l−1, and 0.1–10 μmol l−1, respectively. Soil extract and apple juice were measured with spiking method. It was concluded that the biosensor can be used for screening pesticide residues in food and environmental samples.

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:H7 in apple juice. BMC Microbiol. , 5 , 36. Roller S. Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice BMC Microbiol

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
J. Soós
,
Sz. Kozits
,
Z. Kovács
,
E. Várvölgyi
,
D. SzöllőSi
, and
A. Fekete

., Saint-Martin, E. & Isz, S. (2002): Comparison of sensory and consumer results with electronic nose and tongue sensors for apple juices. Fd Quality Preference, 13, 409–422. Isz S

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/MicrobiologicalSafety.pdf Fan, X. & Thayer, D.W. (2002): γ-Radiation influences browning, antioxidant activity, and malonaldehyde level of apple juice. J. Agric. Fd Chem. , 50 , 710

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Bleibaum, R.N., Stone, H., Tan, T., Labriche, S., Saint-Martin, E. & Isz, S. (2002): Comparison of sensory and consumer results with electronic nose and tongue sensors for apple juices. Fd Quality Preference, 13, 409

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nose and tongue sensors for apple juices . Food Quality and Preference . 13 : 409 – 422 . Feria-Morales, A.M. ( 2002 ). Examining the case

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Börjesson , J., Karlsson , H.O.E. & Trägårdh , G. (1996): Pervaporation of a model apple juice aroma solution: comparison of membrane performance. J. Membrane Sci. , 119 , 229–239. Trägårdh G

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Zs. Molnár
,
Sz. Bánvölgyi
,
Á. Kozák
,
I. Kiss
,
E. Békássy-Molnár
, and
Gy. Vatai

Hea, Y., Ji, Z. & Li, S. (2007): Effective clarification of apple juice using membrane filtration without enzyme and pasteurization pretreatment. Sep. Purif. Tech. , 57 , 366–373. Li S

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., Covill, N. (1999) The antifungal properties of chitosan in laboratory media and apple juice. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 47 , 67–77. Covill N. The antifungal properties of chitosan in

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