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Extended research has been carried out on the antimicrobial properties of herbs belonging to the family Asteraceae, trying to establish their potential use in natural pest control, in addition to human medicinal applications. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used. In this study the aggregate bactericide effect of four species ( Artemisia absinthium L., A. vulgaris L., Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. and Achillea millefolium L.) was screened using the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay. The two Artemisia species which have well-established use as antibacterial, exerted the highest toxicity. Toxicity of Chrysanthemum leucanthemum fell into the same range, although this herb has restricted use in human medicine. On the contrary, Achillea millefolium , which is widely recommended against inflammations, showed significantly lower toxicity.

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During the analysis of environmental risk posed by hazardous waste disposal sites, ecological impact on whole ecosystems should be assessed. It requires a complex testing scheme where surrogate species represent key elements of the ecosystem. However, different organisms are exposed to a differing degree, also, their sensitivity to the same contaminant may vary. A possible way to determine which test reflects most the actual toxic conditions, correlation can be calculated between the measured ecological parameter (such as growth inhibition, mortality, etc.) and  a contaminant gradient. The basic aim of this study was to determine which ecotoxicological test shows the best correlation with the measured analytical parameters. The selected tests were Lemna minor (representing primary producers), Thamnocephalus platyurus (a primary consumer organism) and Vibrio fischeri (decomposer). When testing soil samples, the Thamnocephalus test showed excellent consistency with most contaminants but was oversensitive in the case of groundwater samples. The Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test (ToxAlert) behaved in a different way, reflecting well the distribution of most contaminants in groundwater samples. Finally, Lemna test proved to be completely inadequate.

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Sunscreen products are meant to protect people from damaging UVA and UVB radiation. However, in some formulations the UV filters they contain can react and form many photodegradation products. Their potential toxicity has not yet been investigated. In this study effect-specific analysis has been used to evaluate the bioactivity of photodegradation products in sunscreens. HPTLC-bioluminescence coupling with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri was used. Problems in method development were because of the sensitivity of the bacteria and the wettability of HPTLC plates. A separation system using HPTLC LiChrospher plates and automated multiple development (AMD) with tert -butyl methyl ether- n -hexane was chosen. Detection was by UV in addition to Vibrio fischeri . First, biodetection was performed on pure standard solutions of the UV filters. UV filters with molecular weight >400 had no bioactivity; these included all newer UV filters (not in use before 1998). Five commercially available sunscreens with different UV filter combinations were then analyzed. They were irradiated on microscope slides with artificial light and natural sunlight and on the skin with natural sunlight. For extraction, a mixture of ethanol and acetone was used. The bioactivity which can be indicative of (cyto)toxic effects of the photodegradation products was higher than that of the corresponding UV filter. In comparison of HPLC-DAD and LC-MS with detection with Vibrio fischeri , a high signal in chemical-physical detection did not always correspond to high bioactivity, and vice versa. It was shown that biodetection with Vibrio fischeri was a suitable method for examination of photodegradation products in sunscreens, making this bioassay a useful addition to conventional analytical methods.

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713 721 G.K. Turner , in: K. Van Dyke (Ed.) Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence: Instruments and Applications, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 43–78, 1985

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.) Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence: Instruments and Applications, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1985, pp. 43–78. Turner G.K. Bioluminescence and

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dilution methods are widely used, they may have limitations in reproducibility and time. On the other hand, newer methods like flow cytometry, bioluminescence, and impedance measurement offer higher sensitivity and throughput, but they may be costlier and

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-exchange chromatography [ 13 , 14 ], thin-layer chromatography [ 15 , 16 ], different sensors [ 17 , 18 ], high-performance liquid chromatography [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 19 , 20 ], and bioluminescence methods [ 2 , 5 , 8 , 21 , 22 ]. The last two methods are the most

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
Antonio Logrieco
,
Antonio Moretti
,
Giuseppina Mule
,
Costantino Paciolla
, and
Alberto Ritieni

357 364 Fotso, J., Smith, J.S. 2003. Evaluation of beauvericin toxicity with the bacterial bioluminescence assay and the Ames mutagenicity bioassay. Journal of Food Science

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J.C. Boothroyd 2005 Bioluminescence imaging of Toxoplasma gondii infection in living mice reveals dramatic differences between strains Infect Immun 73

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.01112 41. Brock M . Application of bioluminescence imaging for in vivo monitoring of fungal infections . Int J Microbiol. 2012 ; 2012 . 10

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