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. , P ETERSEN , J. , & N EVES , E. G. , 2006 . Black carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils . Soil Sci. Soc. America J. 70 . 1719 – 1730 . L IANG , B. , L EHMANN

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. , C OSTA , F. & H ERNÁNDEZ , M. T. , 1988 . Cation exchange capacity as a parameter for measuring the humification degree of manures . Soil Science . 146 . 311 – 316 . R

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Coleman, N, T., Weed, S. B. & McCracken, R. J., 1959. Cation exchange capacity and exchangable cations in Peidmont soils of North Carolina. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 23 . 146--149. Cation exchange capacity and exchangable

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diagnostic soil properties on actual and potential cation exchange capacity (CEC) in andisols and andic soils. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 24. (19–20) 2569–2584. Füleky, Gy. & Jakab, S., 2007. Phosphate

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On the basis of the samples studied, which were gathered over the past year, we were able to summarize the characteristics of red clays in Northern Hungary. From the large selection of samples we chose 16 representative soil profiles for our assessment. In order to characterize red clays we used data on mechanical composition, cation exchange capacity and adsorption capacity as well as the mineral composition identified by X-ray diffraction and thermoanalytical studies. Following observations and conclusions drawn from our study we were able to identify the categories of red clay in Northern Hungary: 1. Red clay of the Hegyalja region (Tokaj foothills); 2. Red soils of the Cserhát and Szalonna Hills; 3. Red clays of the Aggtelek karst, the Torna Hills and the Bódva Valley; 4. Red soils of the Bükk mountain range. 5. Red clays of the Northern periphery of the Great Hungarian Plain.  The following conclusions can be drawn from the studies on the water permeability of the soils: Water permeability is correlated with the pore space and the ratio of coarse pores. The bigger the total pore space and the ratio of coarse pores, the better the water permeability of the soil. If the clay content is higher the water permeability is generally lower. In soils that contain montmorillonite the speed of water permeability is lower than in soils containing kaolinite. Within the porous system of bauxitic red clays containing kaolinite the volume of medium size and coarse pores increases, resulting in better water permeability. In the upper layers of soils covered with vegetation water permeability is much better. The high amount of roots and root residues provides better soil structure and porosity, thus improving water permeability.

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Bascomb, C. , 1964. Rapid method for the determination of cation exchange capacity of calcareous and noncalcareous soils. J. Soil Sci. Food Agri. 15 . 821

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Bascomb, C. L., 1964. Rapid method for the determination of cation exchange capacity of calcareous and non-calcareous soils. J. Sci. Fd. Agric. 15. 821–823. Bray, R. H. & Kurtz, L. T., 1945

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. National Agricultural Advisory Service. Advis. Paper No. 4. Ministry of Agriculture, Fishery and Food. London, UK. McLean, E. O., Adams, D. & Franklin, R. E., 1956. Cation exchange capacities of plant roots as related

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Baier, J., 1968. On the utilization of nutrients for photosynthetic production. Socialist Agric. Sci. 17. 1–14. Bascomb, C. L., 1964. Rapid method for the determination of cation exchange

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