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Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate.

The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host.

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The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and nisin was studied on micro-organisms in minced chicken and beef meat. Pressure in the range of 0-800 MPa and nisin (670 IU g-1) were applied for vacuum packed minced meat. In chicken meat the total viable cell count decreased by 3 log cycles as an effect of HHP at 300 MPa and by 5 log cycles in combination with nisin. The D value is 35-39 MPa for pseudomonads in minced chicken meat. In case of inoculation with L. monocytogenes, the cell count in beef meat was reduced only by pressure higher than 200 MPa (“shoulder”) with a characteristic value of D=37-38 MPa. B. cereus spores, both dormant and heat activated, were very resistant (D=800 MPa) in beef. However, the survival of pressurised spores after chilled storage (for two weeks at 4 °C) was smaller for non-heat activated spores than for heat activated spores. Efficiency of HHP combined with nisin needs further research work.

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Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas species P. fluorescens, P. fragi and P. lundensis were found as predominant bacteria of chicken meat stored at chill temperature, which showed high level of molecular diversity, while isolates of the psychrotrophic yeasts Candida zeylanoides, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa formed clusters of high level similarity within the different species as revealed by RAPD-PCR analysis.Combination of multiplex PCR and sequencing of the rpoB gene resulted correct identification of the Pseudomas isolates, while the routine diagnostic tests led to improper identification in case of half of the isolates, which indicated the extended biochemical and physiological heterogeneity of the food-borne pseudomonads. Majority of P. fluorescens and P. lundensis isolates were strong protease and lipase producers, while P. fragi strains were week or negative from this respect. Proteolytic and lipolytic activities of the isolated yeast strains were species specific and protease production was less frequent than lipolytic activities.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Markus M. Heimesaat, Gül Karadas, André Fischer, Ulf B. Göbel, Thomas Alter, Stefan Bereswill, and Greta Gölz

Sporadic cases of gastroenteritis have been attributed to Arcobacter butzleri infection, but information about the underlying immunopathological mechanisms is scarce. We have recently shown that experimental A. butzleri infection induces intestinal, extraintestinal and systemic immune responses in gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunopathological role of Toll-like Receptor-4, the receptor for lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, during murine A. butzleri infection. To address this, gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice lacking TLR-4 were generated by broadspectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally infected with two different A. butzleri strains isolated from a patient (CCUG 30485) or fresh chicken meat (C1), respectively. Bacteria of either strain stably colonized the ilea of mice irrespective of their genotype at days 6 and 16 postinfection. As compared to IL-10−/− control animals, TLR-4−/− IL-10−/− mice were protected from A. butzleri-induced ileal apoptosis, from ileal influx of adaptive immune cells including T lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells and B lymphocytes, and from increased ileal IFN secretion. Given that TLR-4-signaling is essential for A. butzleri-induced intestinal inflammation, we conclude that bacterial lipooligosaccharide or lipopolysaccharide compounds aggravate intestinal inflammation and may thus represent major virulence factors of Arcobacter. Future studies need to further unravel the molecular mechanisms of TLR-4-mediated A. butzleri-host interactions.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Darnay, A. Dankovics, B. Molnár, L. Friedrich, Gy. Kenesei, and Cs. Balla

886 895 Pikul , J., Leszczynski , D E. & Kummerow , F.A. (1989): Evaluation of three modified TBA methods for measuring lipid oxidation in chicken meat. J. Agr

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material on yield and composition of mechanically separated chicken meat.) Coletânea do ITAL , 19 , 196–200. Silva R.Z. Efeito das condiçoes de processamento e tipo de matéria

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Afifi, E.A. & El-Nashaby, F.M. (2001): Microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products by gamma irradiation. Arab J. Nuclear Sci. Appl. , 34, 305

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Orsolya Erdősi, Katalin Szakmár, Zsuzsanna Szili, Géza Szita, Sándor Bernáth, József Sövényi, and Péter Laczay

. Churruca , E. , Girbau , C. , Martínez , I. , Mateo , E. , Alonso , R. and Fernández-Astorga , A. ( 2007 ): Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken meat samples by real- time nucleic acid sequence

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1996 121 889 896 Analytical Methods Committee (2000): Nitrogen factors for chicken meat. Analyst

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histochemical changes in white and dark chicken meat. Vet. Arhiv , 68 (3), 143-148. The influence of addition of enzymes in feed on histochemical changes in white and dark chicken meat. Vet. Arhiv

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