Palladium/II/ in aqueous solution can be selectively extracted by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate into chloroform at pH around 3.5. This preconcentration procedure combined with neutron activation analysis provides an extremely sensitive method for measuring low levels of Pd in natural samples. Applications of this method to Pd determination in natural water and in coal fly ash are described.
A rapid and comprehensive method has been developed for the determination of ppm to sub-ppb amounts of Ru, Pd, Ag, Os, Ir,
Pt and Au, based on thermal neutron irradiation, dissolution of samples, selective absorption on Srafion NMRR ion exchange
resin and high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Two noble metals “specific” resins were tested for their absorption behaviour.
The method has been used for analysis of standard rocks, ores, minerals, lunar samples, coal, coal fly ash, and several biological
Modelingand experimental approaches to study reactive transport across chemical gradients in porous media are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on apurposeful experimental setup to obtain information necessary for model calibration and verification. As example, diffusion tube experiments on the layered acidic jarosite/alkaline coal fly ash system have been carried out using radiotracers 3H+, 22Na+, and 59Fe3+. Such radiotracer diffusion tube experiments provide modelers with reliable information incorporatingsome of the complexities observed in the environment such as local heterogeneities.
A radiochemical procedure for simultaneous determination of lead (203Pb), thallium (202TI) and cadmium (115Cd
115mIn) after fast neutron activation, based on ion-exchange separation from bromide medium and additional purification steps for Pb and Tl is described. Radioactive tracers210Pb and109Cd were used for determination of the chemical yields of Pb and Cd; for Tl it was determined gravimetrically. Two standard reference materials, BCR CRM No. 146 Sewage Sludge and NIST SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash were analyzed and satisfactory agreement with certified values was obtained.
Authors:K. Koh, L. Vela, R. Jervis, and S. Krishnan
The effect of neutron irradiation on the leachability of elements in solid wastes comprising of coal fly ash, hospital and municipal incinerator ashes was studied. There was a marked increase in leachability in the neutron irradiated wastes compared to non-irradiated wastes especially for elements such as As, Cd, Co, Cr, Sm and Zn. For elements such as Fe and Sm there was no significant difference in the leachabilities in the irradiated and non-irradiated wastes. The possible causes of this scenario and implications are discussed.
The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to the analysis of environmental materials, such as urban particulate matter, vehicle exhaust particulates and coal fly ash by photon activation. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry makes possible to use multi-internal standard gamma-rays, in order to crosscheck the analytical results obtained from each internal standard. It was ascertained that this method can provide not only accurate analytical results but also the information of homogeneity of samples, correlation of elements in the sample, loss or contamination in the preparation process.
We have examined the leachability of the toxic elements cadmium, arsenic, mercury, and selenium from solid wastes. The solid wastes studied are municipal incinerator ash, coal fly ash, hospital incinerator ash, raw sewage sludge, sewage incinerator bottom ash, and sewage incinerator lagoon ash (which is a combination of bottom and fly ashes). Cadmium displayed the greatest leachability in all waste types, with 76% leached from the municipal refuse incinerator ash. Although the sources of elements in the wastes are diverse, the leachability and hence the bioavailability in the incinerator ash appears mainly determined by the volatility of the element.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess element concentrations in eleven samples of mineral
supplements/multivitamins acquired in drugstores and pharmacies in São Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Concentrations of Ca, Co, Cr,
Cu, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn were determined. A comparison was made between the results obtained with the labels of the mineral
supplents. Certified reference materials, NIST SRM1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash were analyzed for quality
control of the analytical results.
A simple sample decomposition and laser fluorimetric determination of uranium at trace level is reported in certain refractory minerals, like ilmenite, rutile, zircon and monazite; environmental samples viz. soil and sediments; industrial waste materials, such as, coal fly ash and red mud. Ilmenite sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium fluoride. Rutile, zircon and monazite minerals are decomposed by fusion using a mixture of potassium bifluoride and sodium fluoride. Environmental and industrial waste materials are brought into solution by treating with a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids. The laser induced fluorimetric determination of uranium is carried out directly in rutile, zircon and in monazite minerals and after separation in other samples. The determination limit was 1 μg . g-1 for ilmenite, soil, sediment, coal fly ash and red mud samples, and it is 5 μg . g-1 for rutile, zircon and monazite. The method is also developed for the optical fluorimetric determination of uranium (determination limit 10 μg . g-1) in ilmenite, rutile, zircon and monazite minerals. The methods are simple, accurate, and precise and they require small quantity of sample and can be applied for the routine analysis.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used in the study of fly ash from large electric power and heating plants. Two basic kinds of fly ash originating either from brown coal or heavy-oil combustion can be characterized both by morphology and trace element composition. INAA technique used consisted of both short (1 min) and long (2 h) activations to ensure the determination of 30–40 elements in each fly ash sample. The average composition and determination limits obtained by INAA for coal fly ash produced in several electric power plants burning two kinds of brown coal have been compared with those obtained for fly ash originating from heating plants burning heavy-oil. Coal fly ash showed much higher concentrations of many elements especially of Sc. La, Th, Cs, Ce, Sm, Rb and Al in comparison with oil fly ash. On the other hand, the latter contained relatively high concentrations of V and Ni. The results of INAA of fly ash samples can be used for the projection of efficient separating devices and for the evaluation and prediction of contamination levels in the vicinity of large emission sources.