The aim of the programme started at ARDI-Fundulea in 1999 is to improve the pest and disease resistance of cultivated barley (H. vulgare L.) by introgressing valuable genes from the wild species H. bulbosum L. The paper presents results on the development and cytogenetical characterization of primary genetic stocks represented by diploid, triploid and tetraploid interspecific hybrids and first backcrossed generation descendants. several sterile diploid hybrids were found during the phenotypic screening and cytological analysis of haploid progeny from H. vulgare 2x × H. bulbosum 2x crosses. These hybrids were treated with colchicine and fertile tetraploid hybrids were obtained. Significant improvements in the seed setting and in vitro triploid hybrid regeneration were obtained using doubled haploid lines (DHLs), previously selected for high interspecific crossability, in crosses with a tetraploid cytotype of H. bulbosum. Meiosis analysis of triploid hybrids provided compelling evidence that relatively high intergenomic allosyndetic pairing had occurred in some of the triploids with increased potential for crossing over and genetic recombination. High mean values for hybrid stability, multivalent associations in MI, higher chiasma frequency per PMC and partial pollen fertility were considered by far the most important criteria in the cytogenetic selection of triploid hybrids. Selected triploids were backcrossed to barley DHLs. Among the in vitro regenerated backcrossed progeny several putative substitution lines (SLs) were identified by preliminary cytological screening. The complete phenotypic and cytogenetic characterization and disease resistance tests of tetraploid hybrids and putative SLs or RLs are now in progress.
Authors:P. Mikó, M. Megyeri, M. Molnár-Láng, and G. Kovács
In recent years 56 accessions of Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. (2n=4x=28, AtAtGG) were characterized for the main phenotypic and resistance characters. Among these accessions 38 originated from the base species together with subspecies and varietas forms thereof, and 18 belong to the subspecies armeniacum group. After the evaluation of field assessment data gathered over 12 years, the most promising 11 accessions were selected for a crossability trial with cultivated einkorn. As a result of this trial, the accession with the highest seed set (Acc. No.: MVGB845) was chosen for the development of a new synthetic amphiploid using the same semi-dwarf line of diploid cultivated einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum 1T-1, 2n=2x=14, AmAm) as in the crossability trial. This einkorn line was bred in Martonvásár, and has both outstanding resistance and other promising phenotypic and agronomic characters.After crossing the accession MVGB845 with 1T-1, the triploid hybrids were treated with colchicine to obtain fertile progenies with a doubled genome. The newly developed synthetic hexaploid wheat breeding stock (named Triticum timococcum Kost., 2n=6x=42, AtAtGGAmAm) could ease the introgression of valuable resistance genes into bread wheat at the hexaploid level (bridge-crossing).The aim of the present research was to redevelop Triticum timococcum based on a detailed characterization of gene bank accessions, and to introduce this new material into wheat breeding.
Authors:M. Molnár-Láng, G Linc, E. D. Nagy, and et al.
New wheat × barley, wheat × Aegilops biuncialis and wheat × rye hybrids were produced with the aim of alien gene transfer from these species into wheat. Amphiploids were produced with the help of colchicine treatment from the last two combinations. The new wheat × barley hybrids were multiplied in tissue culture because of the high degree of sterility and then pollinated with wheat to obtain backcross progenies. Wheat-barley chromosome pairing was detected using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in two combinations (Mv9 kr1 × Igri, Asakazekomugi × Manas). In vitro conditions caused an increase in chromosome arm association frequency in both combinations and in fertility in some regenerants. Five wheat-barley translocations were produced in a wheat background and characterized through the combination of cytogenetic and molecular genetic approaches (GISH, FISH and SSR markers). The following translocations were identified: 2DS.2DL-1HS, 3HS.3BL, 6BS.6BL-4HL, 4D-5HS and 7DL.7DS-5HS. Physical mapping of the SSR markers on chromosomes 1H and 5H was carried out using the intragenomic and interspecific translocation breakpoints and the centromere as physical landmarks. Disomic wheat-Aegilops biuncialis additions were produced after backcrossing the wheat-Ae. biuncialis amphiploids. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out using two repetitive DNA clones (pSc119.2 and pAs1) on Ae. biuncialis and its two diploid progenitor species to detect chromosome polymorphism. The 7M and 3M disomic chromosome additions were selected and five more lines still need to be characterized. The octoploid triticale (Mv9 kr1 × Lovászpatonai) produced in Martonvásár was crossed with a 1RS.1BL wheat cultivar Matador. GISH analysis detected pairing between the 1RS arm of the translocation chromosome and that of Lovászpatonai rye in 32 % of the pollen mother cells, making it possible to select recombinants from this combination. The new recombinants between the 1RS of Petkus and the 1RS of Lovászpatonai rye cultivars are being analysed with the help of microsatellite markers.
Authors:Henrietta Poset, Judit Kárteszi, Tibor Kalmár, Zoltán Maróti, Julianna Fekete, and Miklós Egyed
Összefoglaló. A familiáris mediterrán láz a herediter
autoinflammatorikus betegségek közé tartozik. Klinikai tüneteit döntően a savós
hártyák akut gyulladása (serositis: peritonitis, pleuritis, synovitis, ritkán
pericarditis, meningitis) határozza meg. A betegség hátterében a pyrin fehérjét
kódoló MEFV-gén többségében autoszómális recesszív módon öröklődő mutációi
állnak. Legfontosabb szövődménye az amyloidosis, amely veseelégtelenséghez
vezethet. Kezelésében első vonalbeli terápiaként a colchicin szerepel.
Fiatal nőbetegünket 12 éves kora óta több intézetben vizsgálták intenzív hasi
fájdalommal és lázzal járó attakok miatt. A tünettan részeként hányás, hasmenés
és mellkasi fájdalom jelentkezett. A gyulladásos epizódok 5–14 napig tartottak,
a köztes időszakokban viszont teljesen jól volt. A rohamok alatt készült
laboratóriumi vizsgálatok során leukocitózis, valamint emelkedett süllyedés és
CRP mutatkozott. Intravazális hemolízisre utalt az anémia, retikulocitózis,
magas Sebi, szérum szabad hemoglobin és LDH együttes megjelenése. Az EKG-én
inferior és az anteroseptalis elvezetésekben átmenetileg negatív T-hullámok
jelentek meg, ami pericarditis lehetőségét vetette fel. Fizikális státuszából
kiemelendő a diszkrét, de progrediáló splenomegalia. Kizártuk a porphyriat,
glucose-6-phosphat dehydrogenase-hiányt, PNH-t és C1-inhibitorhiányt. Az
autoinflammatorikus betegség miatt elvégzett molekuláris genetikai vizsgálat az
MEFV-génmutáció homozigóta formáját, a Familiáris mediterrán láz diagnózisát
Summary. The familial Mediterranean fever is one of the hereditary
autoinflammatory diseases. Its clinical symptoms are mainly determined by acute
inflammation of the serous membranes (serositis: peritonitis, pleurisy,
synovitis, rarely, pericarditis, meningitis). The background of the disease is
mostly represented by autosomal recessively inherited mutations in the MEFV gene
encoding the pyrine protein. Its most important complication is amyloidosis,
which can lead to renal failure. Colchicine is included in its treatment, as a
Our young female patient has been examined in several institutions since the age
of 12 for attacks of intense abdominal pain and fever. The symptoms included
vomiting, diarrhea, and chest pain. The inflammatory episodes lasted 5–14 days,
but in the intervening periods she was free of symptoms. Laboratory tests
performed during the inflammatory periods showed leukocytosis as well as
increased ESR and CRP. Intravascular hemolysis was indicated by anemia,
reticulocytosis, co-occurrence of high Sebi, serum free hemoglobin and LDH. On
the ECG, transiently negative T waves appeared in the inferior and anteroseptal
leads, raising the possibility of pericarditis. Of her clinical status, discrete
but progressive splenomegaly should be highlighted. Porphyria,
glucose-6-phosphat dehydrogenase deficiency, PNH, and C1 inhibitor deficiency
were excluded during our examinations. Molecular genetic testing urged by
autoinflammatory disease confirmed a homozygous form of the MEFV gene mutation
and established the diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever.
Authors:Natalija Burbulis, Ausra Blinstrubiene, A. Sliesaravicius, and Egidija Venskutoniene
Zamani, I., Kovacs, G., Gouli-Vavdinoudi, E., Roupakias, D. G., Barnabas, B. (2000) Regeneration of fertile doubled haploid plants from colchicines-supplemented media in wheat anther culture. Plant Breeding 119 , 461
Authors:M. Megyeri, P. Mikó, I. Molnár, and G. Kovács
Barnabás, B., Pfahler, P. L., Kovács, G. (1991): Direct effect of colchicine on the microspore embryogenesis to produce dihaploid plants in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. , 81 , 675
Tayeng, T., Chaudhary, H.K., Kishore, N. 2012. Enhancing doubled haploid production efficiency in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) by in vivo colchicine manipulation in Imperata cylindrica mediated chromosome elimination approach. Plant Breeding
Authors:B. Barnabás, T. Spitkó, K. Jäger, J. Pintér, and L. C. Marton
): Colchicine, an efficient genome-doubling agent for maize (Zea mays L.) microspores cultured in anthero. Plant Cell Rep. , 18 , 858-862.
Colchicine, an efficient genome-doubling agent for maize (Zea mays L.) microspores cultured