It is a prime aim to ensure a suitable comfort level in case of office buildings. The productivity of office employees is directly influenced by the comfort. Thermal discomfort and poor indoor air quality deteriorate the intensity and quality of human work. We investigated the comfort in office buildings with on-site measurements during the summer season. The office buildings were operating with different HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) systems: ducted fan-coil with suspended ceiling, installation, non-ducted fan-coil with floor-mounted installation, active chilled beam with fresh air supply.
We evaluated the thermal comfort under PMV (Predicted Mean Vote), PPD (Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied), the local discomfort based on DR (Draught Rate) and the IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) based on carbon dioxide concentration. The comfort measurements were evaluated. The measurements were evaluated with scientific research methods, comfort categories based on the requirements of CR 1752. The results of this comparison were presented in this article.
Nanoparticle Concentration Eff. results max/increase % Comments [ 17 ] Water Al 2 O 3 0.2, 0.25, 0.3%wt 13% Al 2 O 3 , 11% Fe 2 O 3 Variable flow rate [ 18 ] Water Al 2 O 3 3, 1%vol 52.4, 73 Variable incident angles [ 19 ] Water TiO 2 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5%vol 56
analysis of strain concentrations by notches and cracks.
Journal of Applied Mechanics
Vol. 35 (1968) 379–386.
 Simha, N. K., Fischer, F. D., Shan, G. X., Chen, C. R., Kolednik, O.: J-integral and crack driving force in
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). The measurement conditions were an accelerating voltage of 30 kV with a beam diameter of 1 μm for a counting time of 60–120 s and a minimum detectable weight concentration ranging from 0.1 to 1 wt%. Physical separation treatment for Abu Rusheid
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to increase with high replacement level. Terrence [ 52 ] evaluated the efficacy of metakaolin in minimizing the expansion due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR). When HRM is used to replace up to 20% of OPC the alkali concentration of the pore solutions
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transducer surface for the PA probe with inclined elements. The obtained results have shown a high concentration of the ultrasound beam on the focal point direction with reduced effect of side lobes. Fig. 7. Dimensionless displacement amplitude over the
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comparison with other commercial fillers. He reported that the mechanical properties of the vulcanizates filled with rice husk ash were comparable to those filled with inert fillers. The influence of fibre length and concentration on the physical properties
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–7 ]. Rapid quenching is required to circumvent unwanted concentration of alloying elements along the boundary structure grain. More so, failure not to quench faster than necessary in order to lessen residual stress can result into excessive cracking or
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concentrations of silt and clay. There are various reasons which initiate these flows, such as heavy rainfall, snowmelt, submarine landslides, dam break on sloping beds, human activities, and climate change [ 8 ]. Mudflow can destroy a range of structures like