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. Rustemeijer , C. , Schouten , J. A. , Voerman , H. J. , Beynen , A. C. , Donker , A. J. , Heine , R. J. ( 2001 ) Is seudocholinesterase activity related to markers of triacylglycerol synthesis in Type II diabetes mellitus ? Clin. Sci. (Lond.) 101

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. , Haffner , S. M. ( 2007 ) International Day for Evaluation of Abdominal Obesity (IDEA): a study of waist circumference, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus in 168.000 primary care patients in 63 countries . Circulation 116 , 1942 – 1951

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Fatemeh Alipour
,
Mehdi Jalali
,
Mohammad Reza Nikravesh
,
Alireza Fazel
,
Mojtaba Sankian
, and
Elnaz Khordad

. , Anvari , M. , Pourentezari , M. , Halvaei , I. ( 2014 ) Vitamin C attenuates detrimental effects of diabetes mellitus on sperm parameters, chromatin quality and rate of apoptosis in mice . Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 181 , 32 – 36

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Serap Celikler
,
Sibel Tas
,
Sedef Ziyanok-Ayvalik
,
O. Vatan
,
Gamze Yildiz
, and
M. Ozel

2001 27 1 13 Davi, G., Falco, A., Patrono, C. (2005) Lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus. Antioxid. Redox. Signal

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Isabel Stephany-Brassesco
,
Stefan Bereswill
,
Markus M. Heimesaat
, and
Matthias F. Melzig

renal disease, diabetes mellitus, or other immunosuppressive conditions, for instance), that have been treated with antibiotics within the previous 3 months, or have risk factors for infection with drug-resistant S. pneumoniae , should obtain a

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, corticosteroids, cytotoxic agents or other types of immunosuppressing factors (e.g., splenectomy, diabetes mellitus), gynecological, gastrointestinal surgery or presence of decubitus ulcers [ 1, 2, 5, 6, 13 ]. From a clinical standpoint, anaerobic infections

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Costa , JA Alfenas , RC . Metabolic endotoxemia and diabetes mellitus: A systematic review . Metabolism . 2017 ; 68 : 133 – 44 . 10.1016/j.metabol.2016.12.009 3

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. ( 2015 ): Natural products for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus .– Planta Med . 81 : 975 – 994 . 10.1055/s-0035-1546131 Sadeghi , H ., Jamalpoor , S . and Shirzadi , M. H . ( 2014 ): Variability in essential oil of Teucrium polium L

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Introduction

Elevated oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been proposed as one of the major risk factors in pathophysiology of several organ damages including liver tissue.

Materials and methods

In this study, we evaluated the effect of swimming training on hepatic oxidative markers, SIRT1 gene expression, and histological alterations in T2DM. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (N = 7): control, exercise, diabetic, and diabetic + exercise. One week after the induction of T2DM, rats were subjected to swimming (60 min/5 days a week) for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, oxidative markers (SOD, GPx, CAT activities, and MDA level) and SIRT1 gene expression were measured in the liver by special kits and RT-PCR, respectively. Hematoxylin–eosin statins were used for histological alterations.

Results

Swimming training attenuated MDA levels and enhanced SOD, GPx, and CAT activities in the liver of diabetic animals. Furthermore, swimming training restored the expression of SIRT1 in T2DM. Histopathological finding of the hepatic tissue confirmed a protective role for swimming training in diabetic rats.

Conclusion

Our findings indicate that swimming training attenuates oxidative stress probably by upregulation of SIRT1 in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats.

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Abstract

In the study, suitability of porridge, bun, and salad prepared from processed pearl millet FBC16 and sorghum PSC4 had been evaluated organoleptically by a panel of semi-trained judges and 25 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. Organoleptically, germinated pearl millet was found to be more suitable for porridge (50%) and salad (100%), while puffed sorghum was best suitable for bun (15%) preparation. Prepared porridge had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher protein (16.9%) and total phenols (178.8 mg GAE/100 g) contents and antioxidant capacity (1,036 mg TE/100 g) than control. The dietary fibre and in vitro starch digestibility of composite porridge and bun increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Most acceptable composition of porridge, bun, and salad had low glycaemic index (17.64–26.79) and medium to low glycaemic load (8.82–13.40). Suitability of pearl millet and sorghum using appropriate processing techniques (germination and puffing) is recommended for preparation of indigenous food products especially for diabetics.

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