The results of the StepScan
DSC obtained for 15Na2O⋅xMgO⋅(10–x)CaO⋅75SiO2 glasses were
described in the frame of the commonly accepted theory of the glass transition.
A new simplified model of the reversible part of StepScan DSC record
was developed on the basis of the Tool Narayanaswamy Moynihan relaxation theory.
Equivalence between the formal activation energy of enthalpy relaxation process
on one side, and the viscous flow activation enthalpy on the other side, was
Temperature-modulated calorimetry (TMC) allows the experimental evaluation of the kinetic parameters of the glass transition
from quasi-isothermal experiments. In this paper, model calculations based on experimental data are presented for the total
and reversing apparent heat capacities on heating and cooling through the glass transition region as a function of heating
rate and modulation frequency for the modulated differential scanning calorimeter (MDSC). Amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate)
(PET) is used as the example polymer and a simple first-order kinetics is fitted to the data. The total heat flow carries
the hysteresis information (enthalpy relaxation, thermal history) and indications of changes in modulation frequency due to
the glass transition. The reversing heat flow permits the assessment of the first and higher harmonics of the apparent heat
capacities. The computations are carried out by numerical integrations with up to 5000 steps. Comparisons of the calculations
with experiments are possible. As one moves further from equilibrium, i.e. the liquid state, cooperative kinetics must be
used to match model and experiment.
Authors:P. Pustková, J. Shánělová, P. Čičmanec, and J. Málek
The structural relaxation of Ge38S62 glass has been studied by length dilatometry and calorimetry. The Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan model was applied on obtained
data of structural relaxation and parameters of this model were determined: Δh*= 4832 kJ mol-1, ln(A/s)= -811, β= 0.70.1 and x=0.60.1. Both dilatometric and calorimetric relaxation data were compared on the basis of the fictive relaxation rate. It
was found that the relaxation rates are very similar and well correspond to the prediction of phenomenological model.
Slow evaporation of toluene from poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide), PPO, at 23°C produced crystals which melt between 185 and 265°C and have a crystallinityof 0.58. About 8 wt% of the crystals appear to melt temperatures below 220°C. The lattertemperature marks the end of the glass transition interval for this polymer.
The physical ageing characteristics of glucose, fructose, and their mixtures were studied using standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The inflection, onset, midpoint,half-height, and endpoint glass transition temperature (Tg), fictive temperature (Tf), and relaxation enthalpy (
H) were measured as a function of ageing time. The relationship between
H and Tf was evaluated. The time dependence of
H was fit using the Cowie and Ferguson model. The ageing rate was expressed in terms of the average relaxation time (<>) and the entropy production (P). It was found that the fructose component decreased the rate of ageing of the mixtures.
Authors:S. Montserrat, P. Cortés, Y. Calventus, and J. Hutchinson
Structural relaxation in different epoxy-anhydride and epoxy-diamine resins has been investigated by differential scanning
calorimetry using annealing and cooling rate experiments. The annealing experiments lead to the determination of enthalpy
loss,δH, at an equivalent annealing temperatureTa=Tg-20, and for periods of annealing time, ta, between 1 h and 4 months. The variation ofδH with logta, defines a relaxation rate per decade,rrpd, which is very sensitive to changes of the epoxy network. The cooling rate experiments allow the determination of the apparent
activation energy,δh*. The effect of the degree of crosslinking, the addition of a reactive diluent, which acts as flexibilizer, and the length
of cross-link onrrpd and δh* was studied.
(enthalpyrelaxation) when the sample is cooled much slower through the glass transition than it is reheated. Thus, it was a surprise when no enthalpyrelaxation was observed for the first main chain liquid crystalline polymer [poly(ethylene terephthalate
Authors:L. Barral, J. Cano, J. López, I. López-Bueno, P. Nogueira, M. Abad, and C. Ramírez
The physical aging of a system containing tetraglycidyl-4-4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM), with a multifunctional novolac
glycidyl ether resin hardened by 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulphone (DDS) has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples fully cured were aged at temperatures between 200 and 250C, during periods
of time from 1 to a maximum of 336 h. Furthermore, the dynamic mechanical relaxation behaviour annealed at temperature of
220C, was studied, aging during 24 and 168 h. The effect of the enthalpy relaxation during DSC heating scan is shown by the
presence of an endothermic peak whose position and intensity depends on the aging conditions, both temperature and time. DSC
studies suggest that enthalpy relaxation increases gradually with aging time to a limiting value for each temperature where
structural equilibrium is reached. DMA results show that the effect of aging is to cause chain stiffening and a decrease in
the height of the peak value of the loss factor.
Composites of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)/hydroxyapatite (PVP/HA), at variable proportions (100/0; 80/20; 50/50; 20/80 wt%) were
prepared and characterized by Fourier transformer-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). PVP carbonyl stretching was slightly
shifted to lower frequency in composites indicating the formation of hydrogen bonding with HA hydroxyl groups. At the first
cycle of heating, the calorimetric curves revealed a broad peak the intensity of which was reduced insofar as the amount of
PVP decreased in the composites. This peak was attributed to the PVP enthalpy relaxation. According to the TG/DTG curves,
PVP degraded into two steps sharply perceivable in the composites. The first decay was ascribed to the release of the pyrrolidone
pendant groups and the following one concerned the burning of the hydrocarbon chains. The HA molecules seem to exert a catalytic
action on the PVP degradation.
Authors:H. Hatakeyama, Y. Tsujimoto, M. Zarubin, S. Krutov, and T. Hatakeyama
Thermal properties of industrial hydrolysis lignin (HL) obtained from bio-ethanol production plants were investigated by thermogravimetry
and differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal decomposition of HL was observed in two stages suggesting coexisting carbohydrates.
Glass transition temperature (Tg) was observed in a temperature range from 248 to 363 K. Tg values were lower than that of other industrial lignins, such as kraft lignin or lignosulfate. Enthalpy relaxation was observed
as sub-Tg, which is not as prominent as other industrial or laboratory scale isolated lignins. Tg of HL decreased in the presence of water and saturated at water content (Wc) of 0.18 (mass of water/mass of dry HL). The amount of bound water calculated from melting enthalpy of water and Wc was ca. 0.18. Thermal decomposition and molecular motion of as obtained industrial HL are affected by coexisting carbohydrates.