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Based on written and oral evidence, the present study focuses on Romanian Herodias’ various hypostases: biblical queen, queen of the fairies, sovereign of the căluşari . The canonic, apocryphal and magical writings referring to Herodias are considered as some of the most significant testimonies about this character. Such texts present the image of Herodias as biblical queen who provoked the decapitation of John the Baptist, as it was promoted in 17 th –18 th -century Romanian literature; they also represent an important document for deciding whether a certain apocryphal tradition influenced Romanian folk beliefs related to the malevolent fairies. The study of the oral evidence investigates how Romanian folk beliefs assimilated the story of St John’s decapitation and transformed it into traditional legends and inquires whether these new compositions had an effect on Herodias’ traditional roles, those of queen of the fairies and patroness of the căluşari . Finally, the research attempts to describe how Herodias’ beneficial functions are put into the shade by a powerful Christian opponent.

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– Síklaki , István – Terestyéni , Tamás (eds.) Nyelv – Kommunikáció – Cselekvés , 123 – 166 . Budapest : Osiris Kiadó . (Orig. pub.: 1982 ). Dömötör , Tekla 1981 A magyar nép hiedelmvilága [Hungarian Folk Beliefs] . Budapest : Corvina

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The death of Diana, Princess of Wales, on August 31st 1997, led to extraordinary activity by millions of people as they reacted to the news in unexpected and seemingly unprecedented ways.Among the most fascinating phenomena were the many notes which were left for, about and to Diana, at the many ‘shrines’ which sprang up around Britan. This paper will explore the multivalent nature of these notes –the extent to which they reflected folk belief about sainthood, heaven and divinity; the extent to which they were political comment veiled in the conventions of mourning; the extent to which they were either magnifications of common vernacular practice or a new development within it. These remarkable documents were both personal and communal, public and private; t could be argued that they give a unique insight into popular religiosity in Britan at the turn of the Milennium.

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For a study of the mythological and religious role of historical persons of the Mongolian ethnic groups a large amount of different sources can be utilised. In addition to the data in contemporary and earlier historical sources, primarily in the chronicles, a considerable quantity of folklore material of different genres contains information on this topic. Historical persons appear in different mythological and ritual roles in the folk religion and the folk belief system. In the toponymic myths and legends (Khal. domog) usually the most venerated historical heroes of a region are connected to a certain place name, and in the aetiological myths they act as the creators of certain customs. The present article surveys only the mythological and religious role of the Mongolian great khans. It offers a typology of the main motives connected to the above-mentioned aspects of the worship of a historical person.

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. Indiana University Press. Honko , Lauri 1998 Memorates and the Study of Folk Belief . In Kvideland , Reimund - K. Sehmsdorf , Henning (eds.) Nordic Folklore. Recent Studies , 100 - 109 . Indiana University Press. Koiva , Mare 1996 The

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, Mordvinians and Udmurts. Encyclopaedia of Traditional Culture]. 208 – 213 . Helsinki : Suomalaisen Kiijallisuuden Seura - Museovirasto . Popov , N. S. 2013 Narodnyye verovaniya i znaniya [Folk Beliefs and Knowledge]. In Kazimov , A. S

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There are seven silver and brass charms called khiar (“cucumber”) in the Armenian History Museum’s collection of amulets. They originated in Moks, Gyavash and other regions of Western Armenia and in Yerevan (Eastern Armenia) in the 19th century. These ornamented charms with pendants and chains are prismatic and cylindrical in shape. They are hollow and are supposed to have written prayers inside them, though only one paper is preserved.Like the plant itself, these khiar-s symbolize the phallus with its connotations of fertility, fruitfulness, renewal, rebirth, revival. These objects are also believed to give protection from evil spirits and the evil eye.Owing to these meanings women used to wear khiar-s, believing that the objects would protect them from harm and help them to have children. In popular beliefs it was common to ascribe preternatural power to parts of the human body. And the most important parts were the endings — head, feet, hair, nails and phallus, which embodied the idea of growth and initiated life.Phallic decorations of different periods are valuable not only from the point of view of folk beliefs but also as precious samples of decorative art.

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The present article deals with two legitimising elements to be found in the Turkic epic cycle Edige. According to oral tradition Edige’s genealogy goes back to Angšïbay who married a heavenly swan girl thus laying foundation to the Manghit clan. But in the same oral tradition Edige’s forefather is identified with a Muslim saint ( walī or awliyā ) called Baba Tükles. The article tries to analyse the process of linking the Muslim tradition of Baba Tükles, who in written sources appears as the Islamiser of the Golden Horde, to a pre-Islamic tradition about the superiority of a clan originating form a heavenly swan girl. Similarly to folklore and oral tradition, modern religious traditions also display the elements of Islamised folk belief and Central Asian Muslim (e.g. Sufi) traditions, where worshiping ancestor spirits is often intermingled with the respect for Muslim saints who were Islamisers or Sufi practitioners. Some historical and ethnographical data are presented to elucidate the parallel processes that took place in folklore and religious traditions.

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Vilmos Diószegi was led to a study of Siberian shamanism by research into the pre-conquest, archaic stratum of Hungarian folk belief and folk customs, the still unsolved mystery of Hungarian ethnogenesis. He made three research trips in Southern Siberia (1957, 1958, 1964), and one in Northern Mongolia (1960). Shamanism was a taboo subject for Soviet-Russian researchers in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, and Siberia was closed to foreign researchers. He pressed on and carried out his planned fieldwork, always supplementing his fieldwork with research in local museums, libraries and datafiles, establishing professional, scholarly and human contacts which were to serve him well later when he edited his international volumes of studies, and created and continuously expanded the Shaman Archive. The scholarly legacy of Vilmos Diószegi, the Shaman Archive, after his death did not remain intact. Vilmos Diószegi's manuscripts, books, photographs and sound recordings are now officially preserved in four places: the Institute of Ethnology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Museum of Ethnography in Budapest, the Institute of Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and in the apartment of his widow, Judit Morvay, in Szentendre. Between 1998 and 2002, when taking stock of his scholarly legacy, I tried to visit all the places where his scattered legacy is preserved. The following overview is based on this work.

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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors: Anna Székely, Solomon Gwerevende, Jorge Poveda Yánez, Gábor Klaniczay, and Peter Zolczer

important differences. While the title of the first volume is “Hungarian folk belief on the border of Central and Eastern Europe” ( A magyar néphit Közép- és Kelet-Európa határán ), the title of the present volume is “Popular religion and magic,” since, as

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